Sunscreens are only a century old, but pharmacy shelves now contain an array of active ingredients intended to please everyone from outdoor enthusiasts to beauty-conscious shoppers. Various sunscreens are lined up.From the timeline below National Library of Medicine Briefly explain about sunscreen.
1798: Robert Whelan, the father of modern dermatology, describes a skin condition called solar eczema, or skin hypersensitivity to light.
1820: British physician Sir Everard Holm was the first to propose that skin pigmentation has a protective effect against sunlight, and that other components of sunlight than heat affect the skin.
1878: Otto Weier of Austria explains that tannins are a type of sunscreen. However, it cannot be marketed as a sunscreen because tannins have a skin-darkening effect.
1889: Eric Johann Widmark of Stockholm has published groundbreaking research that experimentally proves that UV light can cause skin erythema and burns.
1891: Dr. Hammer of Stuttgart, Germany, was the first to specifically recommend the use of chemical sunscreens to prevent the development of erythema diurnalis of the skin caused by UV rays. He used quinine, formulated as an ointment, as the first human sunscreen.
1896: German physician Dr. Paul Unna describes for the first time the link between sun exposure and skin cancer, describing skin cancer precursor changes such as hyperkeratosis in sun-exposed skin.
1910: Dr. Unna has developed a sunscreen from chestnut extract and is marketed under the names ‘ZeOzone’ and ‘Ultra Zeozone’.
1920s: Coco Chanel popularized the idea of getting a tan after a photo shoot after a Mediterranean cruise. Her friend, Prince Jean-Louis de Fauchigny-Lucigne, said, “I wonder if she invented sunbathing.” In Western culture, tanned skin is a sign of a healthy, laid-back and privileged lifestyle.
1935: Eugene Schuler, founder of today’s L’Oréal, developed the first tanning oil with UV-blocking properties. The active ingredient is benzyl salicylate.
1938: Swiss chemist Franz Greiter got a sunburn while climbing Mount Pittsbuin. This event inspired him to develop the first modern sunscreen ten years later.
1942: Stephen Rothman and Jack Rubin first describe para-aminobenzoic acid, the most popular active ingredient in sunscreens in the United States for many years.
1942: The Army Air Force approached the American Medical Association’s Board of Pharmacy and Chemistry for a “secret experiment” to study the most effective protective substances against sunburn for men stranded in deserts and life rafts. They found that the dark red animal oil was waterproof, cheap, and non-toxic.
1944: Benjamin Green, a pharmacist who served in the Air Force during World War II and used veterinary red petroleum, added cocoa butter and coconut oil to create a more comfortable, consumer-friendly version of the product. Did. This combination ultimately results in Coppertone Tanning Lotion.
1946: Swiss chemist Franz Gleiter developed and commercialized the first modern sunscreen known as ‘Gletcher Cream’ or Glacier Cream. He named his brand “Piz Buin” after the mountain he climbed.
1962: Greiter is credited with inventing the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) rating. His SPF rating for the original Gletcher Creme is 2.
1967: A water-resistant sunscreen is developed.
1978: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun regulating the burgeoning sunscreen market.UV Tanning Beds Begin To Appear In The U.S.
1980s: Australia followed suit, accepting the definition of SPF as “the ratio of UV energy required to produce a minimal erythema dose on protected and unprotected skin”. SPF is the benchmark against which sunscreen formulations are tested.
1990s: Most sunscreen products on the market have an SPF of 15-30. Avobenzone (with octyltriazone added for increased photostability) is the most common ingredient for UVA protection, while octyl methoxycinnamate is the most common ingredient for UVB protection.
2007: The International Agency for Research on Cancer has released a groundbreaking study confirming a link between tanning beds and melanoma.
2008: Marine scientist Roberto Danovaro and colleagues have published the first study to describe the potential role of sunscreen ingredients in causing coral bleaching in areas of high human recreational use.
2018: State of Hawaii effective after ecotoxicologist Craig Downs et al. raised concerns about coral bleaching and potential harm of two sunscreen ingredients (oxybenzone and octinoxate) to aquatic ecosystems. It becomes the first state to pass a bill banning the sale of sunscreens containing the ingredients oxybenzone and octinoxate. Included in most major sunscreen brands.
2019: A study by FDA’s Muraili Matta and colleagues, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, applied four commonly available sunscreens to healthy volunteers and found that plasma levels were higher than the FDA’s nonclinical value for sunscreens. Results are detailed that exceed the criteria set for exemption from toxicology studies. The active ingredients included in this study are avobenzone, oxybenzone, octocrylene, and ecumsul. This study served to prompt the need for further research to determine the significance of these findings when chemicals are absorbed into the body.
Sources: National Library of Medicine, American Academy of Dermatology, American Cancer Society, Cancernet.org, Melanoma Research Foundation
https://www.dailynews.com/2023/05/26/a-look-at-the-history-of-protection-from-harmful-sun-rays/ A look back at the history of protection from harmful sun rays – Daily News