Why second COVID boosters are being offered to vulnerable people in the UK, but not young and healthy people yet

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Until recently, the UK government limited the fourth dose of COVID vaccine to people with weakened immune systems over 16 years of age.

However, after the re-emergence of COVID in the UKthe government follows other countries like Israel, Germany same to you Swedenand expand qualifications for the second stimulus shot. People aged 12 and over who are vulnerable immune systemhome care for people aged 75 and above are now eligible.

But if you are young and healthy you may be wondering if you will be given the fourth grade, and indeed, if the fourth grade is necessary for you. Let’s take a look at what we know so far.

Why do weak people need upgrades?

One of the most important ways to prevent COVID-19 is by accelerating the production of high levels of immunosuppressive agents that eliminate SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, if we combine it. They are also dragging antibiotics called Cells T which helps us to protect ourselves from the devastating effects of COVID infection. However, the measures as well navigation antibodies decreases in weeks and months after each prevention bone.

People with weakened immune systems (e.g. great peopleor people with certain medical conditions). surgical to provide antibiotics to respond to the COVID injection, so they need more doses to give them better protection.

The fourth vaccine that was made available because most likely it is hoped to provide a level of immunity that may not be transmitted by one, two or even three COVID injections.

While we have not yet received a full review of the quality of the fourth grade, a recent study suggests that the fourth category provides additional protection for the elderly. The researchers analyzed data from 1,252,331 people in Israel aged 60 and over. They found that the fourth dose of Pfizer injection reduced the risk of infection and provided more protection against negative COVID compared to the three doses.

However, protection against infection begins to decline four weeks after the fourth trimester. Protection from severe illness appears to have lived longer – participants were protected from serious illness within six weeks of the study. So for the weakest, the fourth part may be useful, but we will need more research to evaluate the long-term results.

The differences pose a challenge

There is no doubt that COVID-19 injections have been very effective in reducing the clinical risk of death and death caused by COVID-19. But despite this success, the growing number of diseases means new variants they are developing all over the world.

In particular, genetic variants alter the increased protein structure — a major factor in the development of immunosuppressive immune systems. This really means that when people are exposed to the virus now, it may not be recognized. antibodies produced by the vaccine. As a result, people — young and healthy — include — they can reduce immunity, potentially leaving the public at high risk for COVID.

By providing more vaccines, governments and scientists are hoping that the effect of immunosuppression means there will still be protection from humans. severe disease different types of viruses cause them.

Evidence, evidence suggests that the vaccines developed to respond to the original Wuhan species, on which the current vaccines are based, did. protection from serious diseases cause some bacterial differences.

Let’s talk young people

So we know People who can be infected they can benefit from getting their extra protection with an additional dose. And we know the emerging differences may challenge the current crop effect of the COVID injection — although they are still highly protected against serious disease and death. In light of this, is there a issue of giving a fourth vaccine to young people, healthy adults?

IN recent studies sheds light on the quality of the fourth batch of Pfizer or Moderna mRNA vaccines in a group of 1,050 young people and health care workers.

Scientists have looked at immune responses, the number of infections, and, among those infected, the viral load (a measure of the amount of virus a person carries). They compared these responses between people who received the fourth vaccine and the control group who received only three doses.

They found that the fourth dose of vaccine increased the risk of bacterial overgrowth, while the level of immunity in the group continued to decrease. But although there has been a decline in the incidence of the virus among people in the four-group group, the prevalence of the virus among those who have tested positive is still high, indicating that they are more likely to be infected. No participants in any group needed a clinic.

What this study and many other studies do not measure is ours prevention “memory” on COVID. Virus memory gives the immune system the ability to respond quickly and efficiently to viruses that have been encountered in the past. Immunity to COVID is difficult to measure, but it does seem to provide protection against serious infections, even when immunosuppressive levels are low.

So what is a home-grown message?

Information frequently shows that the risk of hospitalization and death from COVID increases with age. For health youththose who can ride in strong immune response to the first vaccine, it is possible that the fourth vaccine will provide a little more benefit.

The most important explanation is how a quarter of current vaccines provide protection to very vulnerable people from serious diseases and death as a result of emerging differences. This is something we are trying to understand.

It would be good for rich countries to pay attention vaccine against the rest of the worldthus reducing the risk of severe infection in communities that have not yet received a single jab, rather than offering a fourth vaccine to some patients.

The fourth COVID shot offers little benefit about Omicron infection: a study


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