Two creatures Sing sweetly to each other, Swap a series of trills, cheaps and chirps. If you close your eyes and listen, you may think you can hear two birds. But you will be wrong.In fact, this is a pair of vocal repertoire Alston’s Singing Mouse (((Scotinomys teguina), A small rodent that is found in the cloud forests of Central America and communicates by passionately singing to its peers.
Since their sounds are almost out of our audible range, researchers have revealed their sweet symphonies by recording their vocalizations at frequencies that we can hear. But their elusive call also overturns the commonly thought assumption: songbirds are the only non-human singing animals. In fact, more animals are singing to each other than expected. So which species does it? And do they sing just to find their companions and mark their territory?
First, you need to understand the difference between a song and other sounds. Few researchers claim that there is a definitive answer. But at the simplest level, they define a song as a series of sounds, which can be repeated over a period of time to something similar to what we call a melody, according to a professor of biology at Harvard University. One Brian Farrell explained. Part of his work on the sounds of animals in nature. Simply put, “every song is a sound, but not all sounds are songs,” Farrell told Live Science. By this definition dogBark, FrogBark or cicadaThe treble of is not necessarily the sound that seems to be a song.
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Taking it one step further, it can be said that the song contains some composition. This is helped by the ability of improvisation, Farrell said. Interestingly, singing animals are often not born with abilities, but are also animals that learn to speak from their parents. He said this flexible learning is believed to support improvisational abilities.
This definition is a very subjective human definition. But singing is “an easy way for us to talk about a particular subset of animal signals that sound very musical,” says the relationship between animal communication and animal-music. Applying this definition begins to reveal the hidden diva of nature.
Take the Mexican free-tailed bat bat (((Tadarida Brasiliensis), This tries to attract the attention of women with treble during mating (in fact, it is so treble that humans need to use special audio equipment to hear it). Things get interesting when male bats succeed in attracting the interest of potential peers. According to a 2013 study by the journal Animal Behavior, he seems to be intriguing to women long enough to upgrade simple songs to incorporate different sequences and start mating. Bats can quickly reorganize these sequences to consider what women like. This is a true case of improvisation under pressure.
Gibbon, on the other hand, challenges humans as part of the most people Noble singer Of the primate world.Not all gibbon species sing, but those that produce complex arias are usually long, scattered and scream with short bursts of sound — using a voice mechanism discovered by researchers. Often seen by opera singers, that too.Their composition also depends on the situation: researchers have found that some gibbon predators have warnings. Arrangement of unique sounds For example, you can’t hear it on a regular call.In addition, the gibbons are Sing a duet, Experts believe it helps Strengthen social ties Distinguish the territory from other mating pairs.
But these primates are not the only animals that enjoy singing together. Alston’s singing mouse also sings a duet and sings very politely.Animals usually emit a fast-paced chirp stream (their songs may contain most). 100 notesHowever, research shows that the song of one animal never interferes with the song of another animal. In fact, each mouse pauses for a moment after the companion is over and before it starts its own song.Neuroscientists Neural basis survey To see what this pause ability tells us about the evolutionary roots of human conversation, it may also be based on turn-taking.
Meanwhile, the conversation about the song would not be complete without the unforgettable melody of. Humpback whale (((Megaptera nova eangliae). In 1970, American biologist Roger Payne First recording of a whale song I put it on vinyl and distributed it widely.The soulful song, in fact, had such an influence that it was believed to have helped stimulate the momentum against whaling throughout the 1970s, and ultimately Almost global moratoriumSaid Farrell.
Pain’s recording also showed for the first time that the whale’s bark consisted of a unique and repetitive motif. “We were the first to discover that these 20-minute utterances by whales were actually composition,” said Farrell.Since then, researchers have discovered that whale pods have unique songs that can be used to identify them, and that they contain other whale species. Killer whale (((Orcinus orca) When Bergus (((Delphinapterus leucas), I also sing a song.
What are you singing about?
These are just a handful of planetary singing species, and there may be many more, depending on how you define the wild melodies of animals.but why NS Do singing animals sing, not bark, bleach, or buzz? According to Farrell, animals living in the same acoustic space need to not only compete for territory, companionship, and food, but also effectively “compete for bandwidth.” Singing has the advantage of being able to send long distances and carry a lot of information in long sequences. This is useful for demarcating territories, warning others of predators, and persuading peers with impressive vocal feats like the free-tailed bat.
But beyond these functional roles, do animals sing only for the pure pleasure of it? There is no difficult answer here. But we know that animals play, and that they have an “emotional life,” Farrell said. “These two things have been established and there is a huge amount of literature on them,” he said. There is also increasing evidence that animals have an emotional response to music.
For example, researchers studied the effects of Mozart’s composition on mice that could hear the highest frequencies of music, and found that music lowered the sound of the mouse. blood pressure, This generally correlates with a sense of calm. Based on such discoveries, Snowdon decided to take it one step further. Thirteen years ago, he worked with a cellist named David Teie to determine if this relationship would be maintained, especially when composing music for animals.They say that the music has frequencies within their voice and audibility, and their Heartbeat Or vocalization pattern.
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In two separate studies, Snowdon and Teie decided to study cats and monkey species called cotton-top tamarins (“Saguinus oedipus), Measure the response of creatures to a series of experimental animal ballads created by Snowdon and Teie. First, for tamarin, I composed two distinctive songs. One consists of sharp staccato beats that evoke the excitement of monkey chatter.And another Earrings and whistling songs. For cats, they are a series High-pitched sliding note Set for a background beat that matches the tempo of the rumbling. In both cases, specially composed music evoked a reaction.
2009 study on tamarins published in the journal Biology letterShowed that monkeys can be calmed or excited, depending on the song they play.On the other hand, in the 2015 study Applied Animal Behavioral Science, Their cat song responded to interest from felines. Felines could approach and rub against speakers playing their anomalous details rather than speakers playing regular songs.
“This shows that music has emotional elements, and by manipulating these emotional elements, we can change the behavior of animals,” says Snowdon. In fact, another researcher tested the composition of Snowdon and Teyer’s cats in a real-world environment at a veterinary clinic and found that “playing cat music calms the animal during a veterinary examination rather than human music or silence. I understand. ” Snowdon said.
The fact that composed songs can have this effect on animals makes those who think that the emotional effects of music may have deeper evolutionary roots than we are aware of. I guided you. It is an ongoing research area. On the other hand, can we conclude from this that animals are singing purely for fun? Farrell tends to think that animal songs have an emotional component, which he says can be confirmed beyond current research capabilities, adding that “the most interesting questions are the most difficult to test.” I did.
Given the playful hoops of gibbons, the sympathetic chatter of singing mice, and the soulful melody of whales, it’s hard to believe that animal songs aren’t woven with emotion and joy. But that’s another day’s mystery.
Originally published in Live Science.
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