A fallen angel reports that he is wearing a red-colored man with a horned beard (his own Nike Satan shoes). ParentsThe appearance of the Prince of Darkness has been reinvented many times. Today’s demonic appearance is the result of centuries of art, literature, and theater, all incarnations of evil.
To know the true picture of the devil About history The magazine spoke with Marina Montesano, a professor of medieval history at the University of Messina in Italy, and Jan Makielsen, a senior lecturer in early modern history at Cardiff University in the United Kingdom. Both of these scholars are Satan and Occult. History expert.
Below are eight ways people have painted Satan throughout history.
Relation: Where did Satan come from?
1. Ancient Hebrew: Snake
In the Old Testament book of Genesis, the snake Seduce Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden Generally related to Satan. However, in the original Hebrew text, no such name was given to the creature. (According to Marina Montesano, the only reference to “Satan” in the Hebrew Scriptures means “enemy,” “obstacle,” or “enemy,” either an adversary of humans or a supernatural being. Can be pointed to.), Satan is explicitly called a snake.Nevertheless, with the snake Snake Generally associated with the devil.
2. Early Middle Ages: Fallen Angel
The Bible, Isaiah 14:12, says: This is a direct reference to God’s expelling Satan from heaven. “Lucifer, the” morning star “is the expression that Isaiah defines the future king. Babylon“But the fathers of the early medieval church refined Lucifer far beyond the text of the Bible, making him an angel of rebellion and turning him into a paradigm of pride as a deadly sin.”
The earliest depiction of the devil is a 6th-century mosaic in the Basilica of Santa Polinale Nuovo in Ravenna, Italy. The image “shows the devil as a graceful blue angel, [but this was] Eventually, I came to prefer a more demonic look with animal characteristics, “said Montesano.
3. Late Middle Ages: Satan as a Beast
Montesano said that the depictions of medieval demons were generally like dragons. For example, the early Pope, known as St. Sylvester, reportedly killed the devil. DragonImpressed a group of pagan priests and confirmed the Christian faith of Roman emperor Constantine.
However, during the Middle Ages, mythical creatures were often associated with the devil, as did real animals.by British LibraryMany medieval demon depictions have animal features such as iconic hooves, tails, claws, and even webbed hands.
Illustration from a 14th century French manuscript called Smithfield Decretal Shows the devil with animal body parts and portrays him as a giant beast. “We notice [depictions of] Fox, bear, Lion And there are many other things that could mean something that is due to the devil, “said Montesano.
4. Dante’s Inferno: Winged Devil
Dante Alighieri’s 14th-century poem “Inferno”, written as part of the Divine Comedy, depicts a fictional journey through the seven circles that make up hell before the protagonist confronts Satan himself. Dante described Satan as “two powerful wings, worthy of a very great bird, and the sails of the sea have never been seen so large. (Kant 34: 49-51).
According to Montesano, the devil’s wings may have come from Babylonian mythology because the devil is associated with Lilith’s appearance. “Lilith comes from the demon of Lilith in ancient Babylonia. A winged woman flew overnight, seducing men and attacking pregnant women and toddlers,” she said.
Dante also incorporates elements of Greek-Roman mythology into his traditional Christian folklore. He calls the devil “Dis”, which is derived from the Roman god of the underworld, Dis Pater. In “Inferno,” Dante wrote: “Therefore, in the smallest circle, which is the point of the universe in which Dis sits, who is the traitor will be consumed forever.” (Kant 11: 64-65).
5. Satan with horns
With Satan Goat It was discovered in the Basilica of Santa Polinale Nuovo Mosaic, built in Italy in the late 6th century.In the mosaic, the blue angel to the left of Jesus stands behind the three goats, and the angel to the right of Jesus has three goats. sheep..
This work represents the parable of Matthew 25: 31-46. “When the Son of Man comes in glory and all the angels come together, he sits on the throne of glory. All the nations gather before him, and he the shepherd separates the sheep from the goat. In the story, the goat is associated with those who do not enter heaven. There are also art historians like Alastair Souk. BBCClaim that this is where the devil and his minions got their horns.
Other experts disagree. “The goat, which had little to do with demonology until the Middle Ages, took on a new role. [around this time]According to some scholars, this new role comes primarily in connection with Norse mythology. Some say it may have come from the pagan god Pan, while British historian Ronald Hutton believes it has something to do with the resurrection of modern new pagans rather than the Middle Ages.
In his book, “Devil: Awareness of Evil from Ancient to Primitive Christianity(Cornell University Press, 1987), Jeffrey Burton Russell argues that the relationship between the devil and the goat derives from the relationship between the devil and the god of wealth in the underground world, which Christians rejected as demons. About their relationship with the wilderness and sexual frenzy. ”
6. Lost Paradise: The Devil as Adonis
Many modern viewers are accustomed to seeing Satan as a well-carved handsome man, like the 2016 Netflix series Lucifer. This demon incarnation first appeared in the 17th century. In 1667, John Milton published his epic “Paradise Lost.” This poem tells the story of Satan’s expulsion from heaven and the temptation of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. According to Nancy Rosenfield’s book. “Human Satan in 17th century literatureIn (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2013), Milton describes Satan as “the most fascinating character of the devil in 17th century literature”, the “heroic military leader.”
From the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, interest in “Paradise Lost” revived.Artist William Blake found Milton’s demon character to be very attractive, so he Some illustrations Naked Satan, handsome and divine, accompanies a version of “Paradise Lost” with full human character.
7. Devil dressed in red
From the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, images of the devil were used in advertisements and caricatures. In one 1900 cartoon, he is chased by a female suffrage activist. Along with his horns, he also has a completely red, pointed beard and a rake.
The devil’s red tights were actually made in the theater. In 1859, the composer Charles Gounod adopted the folk tale “Faust” in his opera, which also influenced Marlowe’s early play “Dr. Faust”. Known as a hose.
8. 20th century devil
During the 20th century, the devil continued to be reinvented by writers and filmmakers, making him look like a mysterious stranger, a clever businessman, and even a child, like the 1976 horror movie The Omen.
In Mikhail Bulgakov’s novel “Master and MargaritaIn (first published in Moskva magazine in 1966), the devil appears as a clever but secretive stranger, with a talking cat. A well-dressed but mysterious businessman.
In 1936, American writer Stephen Vincent Bennett wrote “The Devil and Daniel Webster,” in which Mr. Scratch (the devil) vie for the rights of a man’s soul in court. In the 1997 movie The Devil’s Advocate, Al Pacino played Lucifer as head of a law firm in New York City.
But even these contemporary depictions of Lucifer as a lawyer have their origins in the Middle Ages.In a magazine article la Revue de l’histoire des Religions, In a medieval court drama, the University of Wisconsin-Madison historian Karl Schumaker said, “The devil and his hellish council pick out the devils he learned by law and sue for a legal title. I sent it to the court of heaven for the sake of mankind. ”
This article is a compilation of a previous version published in All About History magazine, a publication of Future Ltd. Subscribe to find out more about some of the greatest stories in history. About history magazine.
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