Want to 3D print a kidney? Start by thinking small

Scientific Report (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41598-022-07392-0 “width =” 800 “height =” 529 “/>

Microfluidic key design and numerical design parameters. (a) The design of a low-cost microfiber design system using a microfluidic channel, (b) The design of an efficient microfiber fabrication system using a microfluidic channel. (di) Field field, pressure field, and value field in microfluidic channels embedded in printing system, (d) Strong microfiber field field, (e) solid microfiber pressure field, (f) Shear value field. of solid microfiber, (g) low microfiber high speed field, (h) low microfiber pressure field, (i) low frequency microfiber alarm field. Credit: Scientific Report (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41598-022-07392-0

Organ transplants provide an important way of life for people with chronic diseases, but there are very few organs that can move: in the United States alone, there are over 112,000 people currently awaiting transplantation. Promising 3D printing organs is a viable solution to address this shortage, but it is fraught with complexities and technical barriers, limiting the types of organs that can be printed. Researchers at the Stevens Institute of Technology are now pushing through these barriers by using years of technology to reproduce any type of tissue.

The project, led by Robert Chang, a professor of mechanical engineering at Stevens’ Schaefer School of Engineering & Science, could open up ways to print 3D any type of body parts at any time, even skin directly in on open wounds.

“Creating new organs to order and save lives without the need for a donor will be a huge benefit to health,” said Robert Chang, whose work appeared in the April issue. Scientific Report. “However, achieving this goal is very difficult because the synthesis of organisms using bio-inks — hydrogels used with conventional cells — requires a good degree in physics and microfiber size printed which current 3D printers cannot achieve. “

Chang and his team, including Ahmadreza Zaei, a first-time writer and postgraduate candidate in Chang’s laboratory, hope to change that by speeding up the new 3D printing system he uses. microfluidics-Direct water control through small channels-to operate at a smaller scale than normal. “The latest edition aims to improve control and forecasting on the developed system microtissues same to you microfibers microfluidic bioprinting technology, ”Zaeri said.

Most current 3D printers rely on extrusion, squirting bio-ink from a metal tube to create a system of about 200 microns — almost ten times as wide as a spaghetti line. The microfluidics source printer can print measured objects on a scale of thousands of micrometers, equivalent to a single scale.

“Measurement is very important, because it affects the physiology of the organs,” Chang said. “We are working on a human cell scale, and that allows us to print features that mimic the biological features we are trying to copy.”

After working on a small scale, microfluidics also allows for inks, each carrying different cells and tissue textures, to be used interchangeably in a single printed process, according to the method of the printer. custom combines colored ink into a single bright picture. .

This is important because while researchers have already created simpler organs such as the bladder by encouraging tissue to grow on 3D printing, more complex organs such as the liver and kidneys need different cell types to be combine them correctly. “Having the ability to work at this scale, while mixing ink evenly, allows us to reproduce any type of meat,” Chang said.

Defining 3D printing requires continuous research to accurately determine how different process parameters such as channel structure, flow rate, and liquid energy affect the geometries and properties of a printing press. To coordinate this process, Chang’s team created another product calculation of microfluidic printing head, allows them to tweak settings and predict results without the need for real global testing.

Zaeri said “our computational model develops a computed tomography that can be used to predict different geometrical measurements of a composite structure extracted from microfluidic channels,” Zaeri said.

The computational models of the team predicted the exact results of microfluidic experiments, and Chang used his design to guide the experiments on the ways in which different geometries could be printed. The results of this research project can be used in joint printing, multi-cell ink printing that can copy tissue with geometrical gradients and connective tissue found in the bone and muscle.

Chang is also researching using microfluidic 3D printing to create skin and other tissues, allowing patients to print tissues directly in the wound. “This technology is still so new that we don’t really know what it will help,” he said. “But we know it will open the door for new programs and important new types of biology.”

The 3-D researchers are printing special water channels that are used for medical testing

Learn more:
Ahmadreza Zaeri et al, A numerical study on the impact of microfluidic base measurements on the effects of geometrical microfiber, Scientific Report (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41598-022-07392-0

hint: Do you want to print 3D? Start with a little thought (2022, April 13) Retrieved 13 April 2022 from

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