Health

Study in mice describes how different cell types in the brain work together to suppress nausea

In a region of the brain called the postrema region, a large network of antibodies (red) inhibits nerve activity (white matter), which has the effect of reducing the risk of violence in mice. Credit: Chuchu Zhang

Anxiety is an interesting phenomenon for the human body: unpleasant sensations can strike us as a result of everything from stomach upset or headaches to poor diet or taking chemotherapy.

Yet despite its existence, scientists still do not understand how nausea operates on a mechanistic level.

Now, a team of researchers is leading biologists at Harvard Medical School is making progress in deepening our understanding of brain methods that control anxiety.

In a study conducted in mice and published June 14 in Cell ReportScientists have described a way in which antibodies in a specific area of ​​the brain inhibit nerve-induced nerve activity to reduce stress.

The work illuminates the true biology of emotion. If confirmed in further research in animals and humans, it may inform the development of effective anti-depressant drugs.

Treat illness

Anxiety has originated to help us survive by causing vomiting when we have been poisoned or infected. However, nausea can be a major problem if it occurs in certain situations — for example, during pregnancy or as a result of treatment for cancer or diabetes. If left untreated, neglecting vomiting can lead to electrolyte imbalance and, in many cases, life-threatening dehydration. Current therapies for anxiety associated with these conditions are ineffective, in part because scientists do not fully understand how the brain produces pleasure.

“We cannot develop effective treatment strategies until we know the mechanism of action,” said lead author Chuchu Zhang, a biomedical research officer at HMS.

Zhang and senior author Stephen Liberles, professor of biology at the Blavatnik Center at HMS, are studying a brain-based area called the postrema region that appears to be involved in violence.

Earlier research found that energy in this area of ​​the brain causes vomiting, while killing it reduces nausea, “but it is not known how it plays a role in nausea, so we think this would be a safe place to be. good to start, ”Zhang said.

In the a 2020 study if Neuron, Zhang and Liberles have identified inflammatory neurons in the postrema region that cause nausea, along with their receptors. In particular, they reactions of neurons that define the receptor for GLP1related protein blood sugar and control of appetite. This receptor, they note, is a common target for diabetes medications, for which nausea is a major side effect.

When neurons are activated with GLP1 receptors, mice show signs of agitation, and when neurons are activated, aggressive reactions stop. The team also designed these little stimulants, which are out there blood-brain barrierwhich allows them to detect toxins in the blood easily.

“Understanding what is expressed in the receptors in the postrema region tells us the types of ways in which they can participate in the sign of depression,” Zhang said.

“One traditional way to intervene in violence is to block these signal pathways using antidepressants,” Liberles said.

However, the researchers wondered whether there could be a way to reduce stress — which focuses instead on low-dose anti-inflammatory drugs in the postrema region.

Alternative route

In a new study, researchers examined the structure and function of inhibitors in the postrema region. The map of these micro-organisms reveals that they provide a large network that connects with nearby micro-organisms. When the researchers activated these inhibitory nerves, the mice stopped the violent behaviors that usually result from nerve impulses.

Deepening, the team identified three types of inhibitors in the postrema region. One of these types describes the receptor for GIP, a small protein released by the digestive system after a meal, promoting the release of insulin to control blood sugar.

“We are interested in whether this amount of GIP anti-inflammatory drugs can be used to suppress anxiety reactions, and how this system works,” Zhang said.

When researchers use GIP to activate these inhibitory nerves, the inhibitory cords caused by the GABA receptor flow to nearby micro-organisms, reducing their activity. At the behavioral level, giving the GIP of mice to activate these inhibitors eliminates aggressive behaviors. On the turning side, when the immune system is destroyed, mice continue to show signs of nausea, even after receiving GIP.

Because mice do not vomit, Zhang said, the study relies on observation of behaviors that show anxiety, such as avoidance of toxic substances. Given that similar brain systems exist in humans, researchers say the system can be maintained.

“By identifying the neurotransmitters that prevent nausea in the brain area that have access to medications, we can only enter these neurons to treat the nervous response,” Liberles said.

Zhang added, “The brain that inhibits neurons in the postrema region may be a major clinical target for developing antidepressant medication,” Zhang said. “It’s definitely a new strategy to improve the treatment of anxiety.”

GIP has already been studied as a potential treatment for anxiety, Zhang said. In fact, preliminary research suggests that giving GIP or activating GIP receptors can reduce turbulence in vomiting animals, including ferret, dogs, and shrews. Scientists are currently working on the inclusion of GIP in the treatment of diabetes mellitus targeting GLP1 receptors, with the aim of reducing anxiety as a side effect.

Zhang and Liberles plan to further explore the biology of the nervous system, including how these neurotransmitters are activated in the brain effectively, and what other parts of the brain are involved in controlling their functions. The team also wants to check out more recipients described by inhibitory neuronsand the different types of signals that connect them.

“Because there are different ways to cause nausea, there are different receptors and anti-inflammatory substances that can be used as drugs to suppress nausea.” Zhang said. “We want to know about the different methods of trauma so that we can provide the best treatment strategies that are appropriate for the specific situation.”


Studies have examined neurons that control responses — such as nausea


Learn more:
Chuchu Zhang et al, Brain Circle to Relieve Anxiety, Cell Report (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.celrep.2022.110953

hintMice study reveals how different cell types in the brain work together to eliminate nausea (2022, June 22) Retrieved 22 June 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-06 -mice-cell-brain-suppress- nausea.html

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Study in mice describes how different cell types in the brain work together to suppress nausea Source link Study in mice describes how different cell types in the brain work together to suppress nausea

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