Study identifies unique underlying molecular factors driving melanoma development

Melanoma in a skin biopsy with H&E stain — this condition may represent a malignant melanoma. Credit: Wikipedia / CC BY-SA 3.0

A new study reveals important genetic information that could help scientists develop effective treatment and prevention strategies for the malignant melanoma skin type.

In this new report, researchers at the Ohio State University Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC-James) have identified and identified key features of genetic mutations and is responsible for 15 to 20% of all melanomas. .

Using a special laboratory model, the team ensured that the frequency and specifications NRAS mutations occur in the human body melanoma it is directly related to the potency of that mutation to initiate the formation of melanoma by chance.

“This means that mutant properties on its own — rather than the ease with which specific genetic mutations occur – are the cause of cancer,” said lead author Christin Burd who served as a professor of molecular biology at State University College. Ohio. Arts and Sciences, Department of Molecular Biology and member of OSUCCC-James Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention Program.

NRAS-Cancer cancer is challenging to treat because better therapies than immunotherapy do not yet exist, ”Burd said. types of cancer seems to prefer the specific ‘flavor’ of the mutant NRAS, The reason for this is not clear. “

OSUCCC-James wanted to know why melanoma is improving NRAS mutants are different than those that promote other types of cancer. Scientists say this knowledge could help researchers identify the early stages required for the formation of melanoma and the development of anti-inflammatory drugs.

Burd and his colleagues reported their findings in the June 7, 2022 issue Environmental communication.

Design studies and methods

To conduct this study, OSUCCC-James researchers have developed a variety of biological engineers that will allow them to activate one of several different collections. NRAS-mutant mutations in melanocytes, pigment cells that cause melanoma.

“Surprisingly, when we activated these genetic mutations only those found in humans caused melanoma,” Burd said. “Some humans have never had meningitis, yet we do know that they do cause leukemia. NRAS mutations are specific to each type of tumor and occur at the onset of cancer, rather than in response to specific mutagenic events such as exposure to the sun. “

Collaborating with Sharon Campbell, a biologist at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Chapel Hill, and Debbie Morrison at the National Institutes of Health, the Burd team found that there were some differences in the approach to external exposure. NRAS mutants can initiate melanoma which makes these proteins more likely to interact with the signaling pathways that lead to the development of melanoma.

“We will now work to address this unique feature of melanoma NRAS Mutants to prevent and / or treat the disease, ”says Burd. ‘can cause any cancer. The same concept can be used to identify defects in other types of RAS-induced inflammation. “

To facilitate research similar to this, the team has developed eight new types of mouse and are available in public that will be an important tool for the RAS community as a whole. Burd said these products could be used to activate and evaluate the NRAS status of other relevant cancers such as colon cancer, leukemia, myeloma, and thyroid cancer. They can also be used to explore new treatments for these diseases.

Basic research samples developed in the Burd laboratory and used for this study are available to scientists who conduct research on others. RAS– a type of cancer or function to promote freshness cancer therapies through the archives of the National Institutes of Health.

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Learn more:
Brandon M. Murphy et al, BRAF-enhanced collaboration of NRAS mutants that can increase melanoma proliferation, Environmental communication (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-022-30881-9

hintThe study identified the specific pathogens that cause melanoma proliferation (2022, June 23) and returned 23 June 2022 from -molecular-factors-melanoma.html

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