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Stem cells lose their ‘glue’ and escape from hair follicle to cause hair loss, says new study

Strands of human hair at 200x magnification. Credit: Jan Homann / Wikipedia

A newly discovered cause of hair loss in aged male mice may also reveal the cause of hair loss in males and females, a study by scientists at Northwestern Medicine reports. The findings provide new insights into how hair and tissues age.

Research published in Nature aging In October, hair As stem cells age, they lose the stickiness that remains in the hair follicles. When their adhesion weakens, stem cells escape to the dermis from those places called the bulge. Outside of their delicate microenvironment, they generally cannot survive.

“As a result, fewer and fewer stem cells produce hair in the hair follicles,” said Louis Yee, lead author of Paul E. Steiner’s Pathology Research Professor at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine. I am. “This thins the hair and eventually balds it during aging.”

Because of the many similarities between mice and humans in hair and stem cells, this finding is likely to apply to older men and women with thin hair, Yi said.

This is the first time that hair follicle aging has been tracked in living animals, allowing scientists to have a real-time cellular view of the aging process.

Scientists have also discovered two important genes that contribute to increased stem cell adhesion. In current research, they are trying to reverse these genes and see if it reverses hair loss.

Life and death are always for hair follicles

Our hair follicles go through a cycle of life and death. During these normal cycles, a large number of stem cells remain permanently in the stem cell compartment of the hair follicle and continue to produce hair follicle cells. In this study, scientists discovered what happened to these stem cells as they age, causing their hair to thin and bald.

How research proceeds

“We believe that this stem cell escape mechanism has never been reported, as no one was able to track the aging process of living animals,” Yi said.

Scientists knew that hair follicles would become smaller during aging. But it wasn’t clear how that happened. Many scientists attributed it to cell death or the inability to divide as cells age.

“We found that, at least in part, the hair follicle stem cells were migrating away from the niche,” Yi said. “Cell death also occurs during our observations, so our findings do not challenge existing theories, but provide a new mechanism.”

Research mechanism

Scientists labeled hair follicle cells, including stem cells, with live mouse green fluorescent protein and used a long-wavelength laser to observe aging hair follicle cells. They observed the same hair follicles repeatedly for days (in some cases, they observed one hair follicle for 26 days and saw the entire process of hair follicle decomposition). They saw signs of abnormal cell prolapse.

Next, they compared gene expression levels in follicular stem cells between young and old animals.They found low expression of genes involved in old hair adhesion Follicle Stem cells.

Next, researchers identified a special group of genes that could regulate these cell adhesion genes.They genetically knocked out these two gene, FOXC1 and NFATC1, mutant animals.Result: Rapid progress Hair loss From 4 months. Within 12-16 months, these mice were completely bald. Finally, researchers used live imaging to observe stem cell prolapse in these mutant mice. Stem cells Move away from the stem cell niche.

Other Northwest authors are Chi Zhang (students visiting), Dongmei Wang, Jingjing Wang, and Dr. This is Tsutomu Kume.


Telescopic model of hair follicle development


For more information:
Chi Zhang et al, Hair Follicle Stem Cell Escape Causes Stem Cell Depletion During Aging, Nature aging (2021). DOI: 10.1038 / s43587-021-00103-w

Quote: Stem cells lose “adhesive” and cause hair loss from hair follicles, obtained from https: //medicalxpress.com/news/2021-10-stem-cells- on October 26, 2021 New study (October 26, 2021) states hair-follicle-loss.html

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Stem cells lose their ‘glue’ and escape from hair follicle to cause hair loss, says new study Source link Stem cells lose their ‘glue’ and escape from hair follicle to cause hair loss, says new study

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