Special interneuron networks in the human brain

Human neuronal networks, composed of different parts of the cerebral cortex. Comparison with mouse describes the collapse of interneuron-to-interneuron networks in humans. Credits: Loomba, Helmstaedter, MPI for Psychological Research

The study of the human brain is a major goal of neuroscience. However, for road reasons, research is more focused on molecules, especially mice. Now, neuroscientists have gained a new understanding of the vascular system around the human body using tissue derived from surgical procedures. Data from a three-dimensional electronic microscope reveal a new phenomenon that expands the network of interneurons in humans compared to mice. The discovery of this well-known network component in human psychology encourages further detailed research on its role in health and disease.

At first glance, the brains of rats and humans are surprisingly similar: the nerve cells that make up our brains have similar features and properties, the genetic structure of electrical impulses is highly sensitive, and many of the biophysical phenomena found in other species seem to also be used. human brain. “So, is it primarily the fact that our brains are 1,000 times larger, 1000 times larger than the neurons that allow us to play chess and write children’s books, which rats can’t do?” asked Moritz Helmstaedter, director at the Max Planck (Frankfurt) Brain Studies Center who led a new study published June 23 in the journal. Science.

A large network map in the human cortex describes the main network of interneuron to interneuron which is almost non-existent in the mouse. This new neuronal network may be the key to creating evolution in the alien population. Credits: Loomba, Helmstaedter, MPI for Psychological Research

By studying things neuronal networks in mice, monkeys and humans and mapping their complete structure in brain tissue biopsies, called connectomes, Helmstaedter and his team found that human cortical networks originated as a type of neuronal network which is not really present in mice. This neuronal network depends on the abundance of connections between inhibitory interneurons.

Using biopsies from a neurosurgical operation, performed by neurosurgeon Hanno-Sebastian Meyer and his team at TU Munich, the researchers used 3 magnitude electronic microscopy to map nearly one million synapses in human brain samples. Their data reveal, in humans, the interplay of interneurons (rich in humans) interconnected, while innervation (synaptic pathways) to large subtypes remains the same. “This shows us almost ten times the expansion of the interneuron network to the interneuron,” said Sahil Loomba, one of the lead authors of the study.

“Interneurons make up about a quarter to three-quarters of cortical nerve cells those that behave in a very special way: they work very well, however, not to activate other viruses, rather than to shut them down. Like kindergarten children, or guards at a museum: their hard work and energy is to keep others calm, quiet, ”Helmstaedter said. This is what humanity brain he grew up! “

Silence for meditation: Special interneuron networks in the human brain

Neuronal centers from the mouse, macaque and human cortex. Combination comparisons using 3-dimensional electron microscopy of brain biopsies, reveals a new interneuron-to-interneuron network in humans that is usually absent in mice. Credits: Loomba, Helmstaedter, MPI for Psychological Research

But what does that mean? Theory works suggest that such networks of silenceers can prolong the time when recent events can be observed in a neuronal network: expanding working memory. “In fact, it is very important for resistance working memory Helmstaedter said the new study shows the first new communication system in humans that deserves further study. and must be studied in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. And last but not least: none of the major AI systems today use such interneuron-to-interneuron networks. ”

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Learn more:
Sahil Loomba et al, Connectomic mouse and human cortex, Science (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / science.abo0924

hintSilence for reflection: Special interneuron networks in the human brain (2022, June 23) Retrieved 23 June 2022 from .html

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