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Scientists finally finish decoding entire human genome

This unprecedented image produced by the National Institute of Molecular Biology shows what was extracted from DNA sequences. In a study published in the journal Science on Thursday, March 31, 2022, scientists announced that they have finally compiled a complete human life cycle, adding to the missing elements in the game for nearly two decades. the past. An international team has unveiled a comprehensive set of human genetics, a set of human development guidelines. Credit: NHGRI by AP

Scientists say they have finally integrated the entire human genetic system, adding to the missing elements in a game played nearly two decades ago.

The international team described the first phase of the process as comprehensive human genes – a set of instructions for the construction and development of humanity – in a study published on Thursday in the journal Science. Previous attempts, which have been celebrated all over the world, have been unsuccessful because the DNA technology of the day could not read some parts of it. Even after the renewal, it lost almost 8% of organic matter.

“Some of the organic matter which puts us especially human beings actually in this ‘Dark matter of matter’ and are completely lost, ”said Evan Eichler, a University of Washington researcher who participated in the is currently underway and the actual work of Human Creation. “It took 20- more years, but we finally got it.”

Many people — including their own Eichler students — think it is over. “I was teaching them, and they said, ‘Wait, isn’t this the sixth time you declare victory?’ I said, ‘No, this time really, really we did!

Scientists say that this complete biopsy will give humanity a better understanding of our evolution and biology as well as open the door to medical research in areas such as aging, neurodegenerative conditions, cancer and heart disease.

“We are expanding our capacity to understand human disease“said Karen Miga, author of one of the six studies published on Thursday.

The study ended several years of operation. The first draft of the human genome was announced at a ceremony at the White House in 2000 by leaders of two competing organizations: an international public education program led by a US health agency and a company private, Celera Genomics of Maryland.

Eventually the scientists had finished drawing all the human genes

In this April 14, 2003, file, Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institute of Human Biology, announces the successful completion of a human biological project in Bethesda, Md. In a study published in the journal Science on Thursday, March 31. 2022, scientists have announced that they have finally collected the complete biological structure of human life, with the addition of missing parts in the game almost completed years. twenty years ago. An international team has unveiled a comprehensive set of human genetics, a set of human development guidelines. Credit: Photo AP / Evan Vucci, File

The human genome contains about 3.1 billion DNA molecules, the two chemical elements known as the letters A, C, G and T. Genes are the strands of these genes that carry the chemical instructions, building blocks of life. Humans are made up of about 30,000 cells, organized into 23 groups called chromosomes, which are located in the center of each cell.

By now, there are “huge gaps in our map, and these gaps are falling in the most important areas,” Miga said.

Miga, a molecular biologist at the University of California-Santa Cruz, worked with Adam Phillippy of the National Institute of Molecular Biology to design a team of scientists to start from scratch with a new molecule with the goal of designing a whole, including in the past. missing one. The group, named after the posterior segments of the chromosomes, called telomeres, is known as the Telomere-to-Telomere, or T2T, consortium.

Their work adds new genetic information to the human genome, corrects past errors and exposes long strands of DNA known to play an important role in evolution and disease. IN version of the study It was published last year before being reviewed by scientific colleagues.

“This is a major breakthrough, I would say, of the human genome,” he said, doubling its impact, says biologist Ting Wang of the University of Washington School of Medicine at St. Louis, who did not participate in the study.

Eichler says some scientists have been thinking of unfamiliar places carrying “shoes.” Not him. “Some of us believe that there is gold in these mountains,” he said. Eichler is funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Center, which also sponsors the Associated Press Health and Science Department.

He added that gold contains other important organisms, such as those related to making the human brain larger than that of chimp, with more related neurons.

Eventually the scientists had finished drawing all the human genes

In this unprecedented image produced by the National Institute of Biological Sciences, a researcher examines the extracts from DNA sequences. In a study published in the journal Science on Thursday, March 31, 2022, scientists announced that they have finally compiled a complete human life cycle, adding to the missing elements in the game for nearly two decades. the past. An international team has unveiled a comprehensive set of human genetics, a set of human development guidelines. Credit: NHGRI by AP

To find such genes, scientists need new ways of studying the language of living organisms.

Molecular reading requires cutting DNA strands into hundreds of thousands of letters. The listing machine reads the letters in each area and scientists are trying to put the shortcuts in the correct order. This is especially difficult in places where letters are repeated.

Scientists say some areas could not be read before the improved genetic engineering that now allows them, for example, to read exactly one million letters of DNA at a time. This allows scientists to view repetitive space objects as long ropes instead of snippets that they then share together.

Researchers have also overcome a challenge: Most cells carry cells from the mother and father, attempting to assemble the parts correctly. T2T researchers rounded this up using a cell line from one “complete hydatidiform mole,” an unfertilized egg cell that contains two copies of the father’s DNA and no single mother.

Next step? Map of additional genes, including those that include a collection of genes from both parents. This attempt did not map one of the 23 chromosomes found in men, called the Y chromosome, because the mole contains only X.

Wang said he is working with the T2T team on the Human Pangenome Reference Consortium, which is trying to provide “references,” or samples, to genetics for 350 people representing a wide range of human diversity.

“Now we’ve got one cell right and we have to do a lot, a lot,” Eichler said. “This is the beginning of something exciting for the humanities.”


First, a series of intermittent human genes reveal hidden regions


Learn more:
Sergey Nurk et al, A comprehensive list of human genes, Science (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / science.abj6987

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hint: Scientists have finally completed the launch of all human genes (2022, April 3) returned 3 April 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-03-scientists-finish-decoding- entire-human.html

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