Scientists discover and characterize a novel membraneless organelle that could play a role in Alzheimer’s treatment

Organic organs. Credit: UC Santa Barbara

Researchers at UC Santa Barbara neuroscientist Kenneth S. Kosik’s Lab have discovered a novel organelle — an unknown cell structure whose function is to help cleanse and break down proteins during stress and keep cells working at the top condition. Improvement of this membrane-free cell, called BAG2 condensate, can lead to treatment for conditions that cause protein breakdown, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Their results are reported in a paper led by scientist Daniel C. Carrettiero and published in the journal Environmental communication.

“People have long known about some of the things that are going on in the world Cells those who do not have membranes, “said Kosik.” And it has never been clear how they are put together, what they are and what they do until recently. “

Indeed, thanks to advances in imaging technology, scientists have discovered an unprecedented system, defining cells for improved systems and efficient systems.

Of particular interest are biomolecular condensates, which do not have a recognizable cell membrane barrier, but instead, are separated from the surrounding cytoplasm by a mass difference that can ‘ can be lying down compared to a drop of oil in water. This liquid-phase separation creates a unique atmosphere, relatively focused for certain tasks and attitudes. For example, stress granule is a non-membrane cell that appears when the cell is under stress — perhaps there is too much glucose, perhaps too hot or cold, the cell may experience dehydration – and its function is to clear RNA. floating in it. cytoplasm, preserving these molecular principles and stopping their translation into proteins.

“If your cell is under stress, you want to shut down the proteins so you can actually save energy and go beyond stress,” Kosik said.

But that is only part of the picture, according to researchers.

“When there is stress, what happens to the proteins in the cell?” Kosik said. “If they are under these stressful conditions, some of these proteins can be damaged and can be lost.” Problems tau proteinfor example, may be pathological and turn inside out neurofibrillary tangles which indicates Alzheimer’s disease.

This is where the new BAG2 condensate that researchers discovered comes into play. Named the BAG2 protein, the cells it detects can degrade these harmful proteins in the cytoplasm and induce them into another type of proteasome – a cell structure. trash can — which is in the organelle.

“Some proteins make a small barrel, and as the protein is extracted through this small cylinder, it breaks down,” Kosik said. This inactivates and breaks down proteins. He added that many proteasomes are present in the cells at any given time, he said, but what makes this particular proteasome (labeled 20S) is that it can absorb proteins that are already a little lost and will not they are not compatible with other cell phone trash.

Kosik explains, “The boundary levels present on many proteasomes are absent in the BAG2 basket.” In addition, this mechanism of protein degradation does not depend on the classification system, in which proteins intended for degradation have the marker protein complex before being captured by the proteasome.

The role of BAG2 protein has not yet been determined in this context, but Kosik alleges that it may play a role in contributing to the regulation of conflict. protein before entering the 20S proteasome.

BAG2 is considered co-chaperone in its active ingredient bacterial chaperones to help proteins multiply, “he said. In another previous readingKosik Lab demonstrated the ability of BAG2 to target and purify tau proteins that have accumulated in it. cell culture.

“What these BAG2 baskets are doing, at least in terms of tau, is that they can go to a tau that is actually damaged,” Kosik said.

These positive effects may indicate a way to interrupt the development of Alzheimer’s disease, which is a symptom of malignant tumors.

“The high concentrations of BAG2 are a good place for tau damage,” Kosik said. “It would be really good to find out how we can get tau into this condensate at the beginning of its damage so that the cell is separated, before it gets worse.”

Research for this study was also conducted by Maria C. Almeida, Andrew P. Longhini, Jennifer Rauch, Dasol Han, Xuemei Zhang and Saeed Najafi at UCSB; and Jason E. Gestwiki at UCSF.

Scientists have discovered an immediate way to help human cells with protein damage survive

Learn more:
Daniel C. Carrettiero et al, Pressure of client pathways to proteasome by BAG2 ubiquitin-independent deradaration condensate, Environmental communication (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-022-30751-4

hint: Scientists have identified and documented an abnormal immune system that may play a role in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (2022, June 14) restored 14 June 2022 from -06-scientists-characterize-membraneless-organelle- role.html

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Scientists discover and characterize a novel membraneless organelle that could play a role in Alzheimer’s treatment Source link Scientists discover and characterize a novel membraneless organelle that could play a role in Alzheimer’s treatment

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