Health

Revealing communications between brain and body

+ VSNs (30 mice divided into 4 samples) show 52 clusters (A1-L2) in 12 VSN subpopulations (AL) (top) or VSNs expressing UBPs representing 7 visceral organs (color-blind) (bottom). c, Two-dimensional (2D) (top) and three-dimensional (3D) (bottom) UMAP plots of VSNs innervating different physiological systems. E-VSNs have been removed. Three heart VSN teams (red, arrows) come together with other gut (green) VSNs in a 3D UMAP program. d, Dot plot shows differentiated entities in lung, heart, gut and pancreas VSNs. e, UMAP plot of VSN clusters, colored by target preference (correct position of body organs), indicating the condition of the ‘visceral organs’ (arrow) coding the visceral organs along the rostral-caudal axis of the body. f, The correlation between the normal position of the organs indicated along the rostral-caudal axis of the body (mean; n = 4) and the position of VSNs describing the UBPs of the organs shown with the condition ‘visceral front ‘(meaning of biological state; meaning ± sem; n as shown). Line rotation R2 = 0.7547. g, Histograms showing the distribution of VSN-labeled UB (color) with the detection of ‘visceral gabion’ conditions. The bars below show the relative position of the organs along the rostral-caudal axis of the body (first-end; meaning ± sem; n = 4). Credit: Nature (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41586-022-04515-5 “width =” 800 “height =” 530 “/>

Figure 1: ‘Visual effects’ coding in VSNs. a, An example of a prognostic-seq-like study of VSNs entering the lungs, heart, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, intestine and pancreas. The group was moderated by BioRender.com. b, UMAP plot from Prediction-seq of 14,590 Phox2b+ VSNs (30 mice divided into 4 samples) show 52 clusters (A1-L2) in 12 VSN subpopulations (AL) (upper) or VSNs expressing UBs representing 7 visceral organs (color) (bottom) . c, Two-dimensional (2D) (top) and three-dimensional (3D) (bottom) UMAP plots of VSNs innervating different physiological systems. E-VSNs have been removed. Three heart VSN teams (red, arrows) come together with other gut (green) VSNs in a 3D UMAP program. d, Dot plot shows differentiated entities in lung, heart, gut and pancreas VSNs. e, UMAP plot of VSN clusters, colored by target preference (correct position of body organs), indicating the condition of the ‘visceral organs’ (arrow) coding the visceral organs along the rostral-caudal axis of the body. f, The correlation between the normal position of the organs indicated along the rostral-caudal axis of the body (mean; n = 4) and the position of VSNs describing the UBPs of the organs shown with the condition ‘visceral front ‘(meaning of biological state; meaning ± sem; n as shown). Linear Reversal R2= 0.7547. g, Histograms showing the distribution of VSN-labeled UB (color) with the detection of ‘visceral gabion’ conditions. The bars below show the relative position of the organs along the rostral-caudal axis of the body (first-end; meaning ± sem; n = 4). Credit: Nature (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41586-022-04515-5

The human brain is an active front – detecting signals from all over the body as it undergoes changes throughout the day. When the lungs breathe in bitterness, the body recognizes the cough. Or when the stomach is poisoned, it causes vomiting. The brain plays a role in both.

The ability of the brain to differentiate between different signals has impressed scientists, but the biological mechanism is still unknown. Now, in a new study that aims to understand how different signals are calculated in the body internally bad nerve– Cranial nerves that send information to and from the brain about the function of internal organs — Yale researchers have discovered that signals have three basic features that are self-contained by vagal sensory neurons. They are: the organs from which the signal is emitted, the type of tissue in which the signal is emitted, and the stimulus. This codeing allows for the exact accuracy achieved by computers. The researchers, including leading authors Rui Chang, Ph.D., assistant professor of neuroscience and cellular & genetics, and Le Zhang, Ph.D., assistant professor of biology, published their findings in. Nature on March 16th.

Investigate complex relationships between the brain and the body

The body’s ability to hear changes in itself is called interoception, a vital process for life. This body-to-brain connection is made by the vagus nerve, and the signals that this nerve receives are quantified by the vagal nerve fibers.

“This is the first time we know exactly how different body signals are represented by the vagal interoception system to the brain in a precise and precise manner,” Chang said. “We know that the brain can discriminate so much, but what is the biological cause of this racism?”

First, the researchers wanted to understand how organelle data are computed in the abnormal nerve. To learn more about how neurons can break down signals between organs, a group of pathogens that create viruses to obtain unique passwords that include different foreign DNA sequences and inject them into major organs visceral (internal) in mice. As a result, the vagal nerves that make up each organ are labeled with a unique code for this organ. They then use single-stranded RNA cell sequencing technology to learn more about the biological properties of these viruses that process each of the seven organs.

Through this state-of-the-art technology, the team discovered a “biological characteristic,” in which neurons on the one hand predispose to upper organs such as the lungs and esophagus, while neurons on the other side point to organs. located in the lower abdomen.

“By looking at the signaling pathways of the vagus nerve, we are able to determine which organs each neuron perceives along the rostro-caudal axis of the body,” Chang said. “So in a nutshell, our first finding was that there are molecular mechanisms for the expression of visceral organs in the vagus nerve.”

The researchers found it surprising

In addition, each part of our body is made up of different parts that have different functions. The stomach, for example, consists of layers of tissue that include the connective tissue layer, the muscle layer, and the endocrine mucosa. The researchers also identified a type of cell codec that leads to vagal nerve neurons to different types of meat. This codeing is generally independent of the genetic structure for the organs.

“Our second study was very impressive. None of the previous studies had considered this,” Chang said. “By knowing these two numbers, you know exactly where a particular neuron in the vagus nerve is working in the body.”

Even at one point in the body, a variety of changes can occur, such as mechanical changes, release of hormones, or inflammation. To better understand how the body detects these changes, the researchers developed a new technique called vagal calcium imaging to change the natural environment, or vCatFISH. First, using in vivo calcium imaging, they anticipated neuronal activity in live rats in response to a variety of stimuli. As the rats experienced physical changes such as stretching or intestinal stimuli, the researchers examined the calcium response of the vagal ganglion to see which neurons were activated.

Using this method, the researchers found the division of neurons with the same molecular properties, each detecting a specific type of activity regardless of where it occurred.

“We’ve learned that some of the nerves in the arteries can respond to pulmonary embolism, some can respond to gastric emptying, and some can respond to intestinal digestion,” Chang said. “For neurons designed to detect stretching, for example, no matter where it occurs – it can be from the lungs, stomach or small intestine. Regardless of the organs or tissues of the body – it is independent, third dimension. “

New methods of treating diseases

By recognizing how the vagus nerve transmits various signals to the brain, the researchers hope to be able to design targeted devices through human signaling pathways.

“If we understand how low blood pressure can control the heart, for example, it could lead to the discovery of new ways to treat high blood pressure,” Zhang said.

In addition, provocative nerve stimulation is another effective treatment for epilepsy and anxiety, but researchers do not yet understand why. By knowing which neurons are involved with specific functions, the team hopes more effective and improved treatments will follow.

“In a short period of time, we look forward to developing more projects than ever before nerve It’s a stimulus, “Chang said.” But our long-term goal is to use our research to design different therapies. ”


The gut branches of the vital nerves of the brain reward and energy system


Learn more:
Qiancheng Zhao et al, A multivariate analysis of vagal interoceptive systems, Creation (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41586-022-04515-5

Its formation
Yale University

hint: Explaining the communication between brain and body (2022, March 21) Retrieved March 21, 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-03-revealing-brain-body.html

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