Ready, set…GO! Scientists discover a brain circuit that triggers the execution of planned movement

While waiting for the red light, the brain processes the precise movements required to make a smooth rotation. Of course, these plans return to work only when the light turns green. Scientists from the Max Planck Florida Center for Neuroscience, HHMI’s Janelia Research Campus, Allen Institute for Brain Science, and others have now discovered a key brain circuit to generate movement in response to environmental signals. Credit: Julia Kuhl

Scheduled movement is vital to our daily lives, and often requires slow execution. We were kids, we were squatting ready but we were waiting for the shout “GO!” before running from the start line. As adults, we wait until the traffic light turns green before turning around. In both cases, the brain regulates our emotions but suppresses their activity until a specific explanation (for example, a “GO!” Or green light shouts). Now, scientists have discovered a network of brains that turn systems into action in response to this signal.

The study, published in the journal Science Cell, Results from a collaboration of scientists at the Max Planck Florida Center for Neuroscience, HHMI’s Janelia Research Campus, Allen Institute for Brain Science, and more. Led by the original authors Dr. Hidehiko Inagaki and Dr. Susu Chen and the great writer Dr. Karel Svoboda, scientists set out to understand how patterns in our environment can cause structured emotions.

“The brain is like a band,” said Dr. Inagaki. “In drama, musical instruments play different tracks with different timings and timbres. The group of these tones regulate the word music. Similarly, neurons in the brain work with different types and timing. . The group of neuronal functions regulates specific parts of our behavior. “

For example, the motor cortex is the area of ​​the brain that controls movement. The operating modes in a black car vary greatly between process steps and movement implementation. Switching between these symbols is important to attract movement. However, the areas of the brain control of this change is unknown. “There must be parts of the brain that act as conductors,” said Dr. Inagaki. “Such areas observe environmental signals and regulate neuronal activity from one system to another. The operator ensures that the systems are transformed into action at the right time.”

To identify the neural circuit that acts as a guide to initiate a planned movement, the team records the activity of hundreds of neurons simultaneously while the mouse performs the stimulus movement. In this exercise, rats were trained to lick the right hand when drinking alcohol or the left when no alcohol had been touched. If the animals licked it properly, they were rewarded. However, arrests were made. The animals slow down their movements until the sound, or “go cue,” is played. Only the right movement after the sign of travel will be rewarded. Thus, mice observe a lingering pattern to lick until they are carried out to carry out the licking plan afterwards.

The evolutionists then linked the neuronal complex schedule to the appropriate levels of moral work. The researchers found that brain activity occurs immediately after travel and during the transition between car planning and execution. This brain function originates from a circle of neurons in the central nervous system, thalamus, and cortex.

To test whether this circle worked as a guide, the team used optogenetics. This method allows scientists to turn on or off this circle using light. Activating this circle during the scheduling function changes the mouse computer work from car system to execution and makes the mouse lick. On the other hand, turning off the circle while turning on the go cue suppresses the movement. The rats were in the car design process as if they had not received a signal for a ride.

This work of Dr. Inagaki and his colleagues discovered a around the nerve important to create mobility to respond to environmental signals. Dr. Inagaki describes how their research reflects the nature of behavioral management as a whole. “We’ve got a circle that can change jobs motor skills from car planning to execution at the appropriate time. This gives us insight into how the brain processes neuronal functions to produce complex behaviors. The next work will focus on understanding how this circle and others restructure neuronal functions in many areas of the brain. “

In addition to these basic advances in understanding how the brain works, this work has important clinical implications. In autism spectrum disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, patients experience difficulty in self-initiated movements, including difficulty walking. However, adding environmental signals to cause movement, such as lines or sounds, can greatly enhance a patient’s mood. This phenomenon, also known as paradoxical kinesia, suggests that different pathways are taken in the brain for self-movement and motor-induced movement. Find out things brain networks that are involved in motor neurons, isolated in Parkinson’s disease, may help to improve treatment.

New brain circuits discovered in motor learning

Learn more:
Hidehiko K. Inagaki et al, In the midbrain-thalamus-cortex circle reorganizes cortical energy to initiate movement, Cell (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.cell.2022.02.006

Press Release:

hint: Edit, set… GO! Scientists have identified the brain circuits that lead to the implementation of the motor program (2022, March 14) retrieved 14 March 2022 from brain-circuit.html

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