Possible discovery of mechanism behind mysterious COVID-19 symptoms

Amyloid image from the SARS-CoV-2 virus protein, which was visualized using an electronic microscope. When an enlarged protein binds to the enzyme neutrophil elastase in the test tube, protein fibrils are formed, which can lead to blood coagulation disorders in patients with COVID-19. Credit: Sofie Nyström da Per Hammarström

In patients with severe and chronic COVID-19, blood coagulation disorders were found. Now, researchers at the University of Linköping (LiU), Sweden, have discovered that the body’s immune system can affect high-density lipoprotein (SARS-CoV-2) levels, resulting in increased amyloid production. . The possible association between the production of harmful amyloid and COVID-19 markers has been published American Chemical Society Journal.

In those with severe and long-term COVID-19, organs other than the lungs can be very effective. Complications and damage to, for example, the heart, kidneys, eyes, nose, and brain, as well as blood coagulation disorders, may develop. The reason why illness affects the body in this way is a big mystery. Now, researchers at LiU have found a biological method that has never been described, and which could be part of the information.

The team of researchers studied diseases caused by certain unfounded chemicals, of which Alzheimer’s disease in the brain is the most well-known example. The researchers noted that there are many similarities between the symptoms associated with COVID-19 and those seen in diseases caused by protein degradation.

The functions of proteins are strengthened by the fact that proteins are synthesized by special mechanisms that result in a specific three-dimensional structure. Similarly this feature, proteins can also take on a different form. More than 30 proteins are known to have this type of alternative, which is associated with illness. This protein-binding alternative is called amyloid. LiU researchers have wondered whether the virus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, contains a protein that can cause amyloid. They were particularly interested in increase protein on top of the virus that the virus uses to interact with the body’s cells and infect them.

Using a computer simulator, the researchers found that the increased protein coronavirus contains a series of seven different substances that can cause amyloid. Three of the seven lists met the criteria for researchers to count them as amyloid-producing series when tested. They produce, among other things, fibrils, similar to long fibers when viewed under a microscope.

But do these fibers fly without delay? It is a well-known fact that many diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, precede the body’s ability to break down major proteins. small pieces, which can also cause harmful amyloid. In their study, the researchers showed that an enzyme from the white blood cells of the immune system can cut down on increased levels of coronavirus protein. When a protein is broken down, it produces the exact type of protein that, according to research researchers, can cause amyloid. This enzyme is secreted by many of the white blood cells, neutrophils, which are released early during infection such as COVID-19. When researchers combined a high-density lipoprotein with this enzyme, called neutrophil elastase, extraordinary fibrils were produced.

“We have never seen such a perfect, but terrifying, fibrils like these from the amyloid-producing SARS-CoV-2 protein and one of them. Fibrils that originate from a high-density lipoprotein come out like organs. Amyloids are not usually found in such a branch. We believe it is linked to increased protein synthesis, “said Per Hammarström, a professor in the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM) at Linköping University.

Previous studies, including a study by South African researchers, have shown that increased protein is involved in the formation of small blood vessels. The blood contains fibrin protein, which helps the blood to clot when a vessel is damaged, so that the hole is closed again and blood flow stops. When the wound begins to heal, the coagulate should be separated by plasmin, which is also present in the blood. Researchers at LiU combined amyloid-producing proteins from increased protein with these body proteins in the test tube, and found that the coagulate fibers produced at the time could not be broken down normally by plasmin. . This newly discovered mechanism may be behind the production of similar blood clots seen in severe and long-term COVID-19. Excuse me blood Coagulation is also seen in many amyloid-related diseases.

“We can see that karu proteinwhen our immune system is affected, it can cause it amyloid system, and this can affect us blood coagulation. We believe that this study is important for many areas of research, and we hope that other researchers will explore the questions that arise, ”said Sofie Nyström, an assistant professor at IFM and author of the study.

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Learn more:
Sofie Nyström et al, Amyloidogenesis and SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein, American Chemical Society Journal (2022). DOI: 10.1021 / jacs.2c03925

hintThe possibility of finding the path behind the amazing COVID-19 markers (2022, May 19) was restored May 19, 2022 from .html

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