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Photonic Chip Breakthrough Opens a Path Toward Quantum Computing in Real-World Conditions

Quantum computing platforms accelerate the transition from bulk optics to integrated photonics on silicon chips less than a cent

NS Quantum computing The market is projected to reach $ 65 billion by 2030. This is a hot topic for both investors and scientists, as it can solve incomprehensible and complex problems.

Drug discovery is one example. To understand drug interactions, pharmaceutical companies may want to simulate the interaction of two molecules. The challenge is that each molecule is made up of hundreds of atoms, and scientists need to model all the ways in which these atoms can be arranged when each molecule is introduced. there is. The number of possible configurations is infinite, more than the number of atoms in the entire universe. Only quantum computers can represent such vast and dynamic data problems.

While the mainstream use of quantum computing is decades away, research teams at universities and private companies around the world are working on different aspects of technology.

3 optical microcavities

This silicon chip contains three optical microcavities that enclose photons and generate microcombs to efficiently convert photons from a single wavelength to multiple wavelengths. Yi’s team verified the generation of 40 qumode from a single microcavity and demonstrated that quantum mode multiplexing can work on an integrated photonic platform.Credit: University of Virginia

A research team led by XuYi, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Virginia’s Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences, has carved a niche in the physics and applications of photonic devices that detect and shape a variety of lights. Applications such as communication and computing. His research group has created a scalable quantum computing platform on a penny-sized photonic chip that significantly reduces the number of devices required to achieve quantum speed.

Olivier Pfister, a professor of quantum optics and quantum information at UVA, and Hansuek Lee, an assistant professor at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology, contributed to this success.

Nature Communications Recently, the team’s experimental results “A Squeezed Quantum Microcomb on a Chip” have been released. Two Yi group members, Zijiao Yang and Ph.D. Physics students and PhD students in electrical and computer engineering are co-lead authors of the dissertation. Grants from the National Science Foundation’s Engineering Quantum Integrated Platforms for Quantum Communication Program support this research.

Xu Yi

A research team led by XuYi, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Virginia’s Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences, has carved a niche in the physics and applications of photonic devices that detect and shape a variety of lights. Applications such as communication and computing.Credit: University of Virginia

Quantum computing promises a whole new way of processing information. Desktop or laptop computers process information with long strings of bits. Bits can hold only one of two values, 0 or 1. Quantum computers process information in parallel. That is, you don’t have to wait for a sequence of information to be processed before doing any further calculations. The unit of that information is called a qubit, a hybrid that can be 1 and 0 at the same time. Quantum mode, or qumode, spans the entire spectrum of variables from 1 to 0 (the value to the right of the decimal point).

Researchers are working on a variety of approaches to efficiently generate the vast number of qumodes needed to achieve quantum velocities.

Yi’s photonics-based approach is attractive because the field of light is also full spectrum. Each light wave in the spectrum can be a quantum unit. Yi hypothesized that light achieves a quantum state by entwining the field of light.

You are probably familiar with fiber optics, which deliver information over the Internet. Within each optical fiber, lasers of different colors are used in parallel. This is a phenomenon called multiplexing. Yi introduced the concept of multiplexing into the quantum realm.

micro The key to the success of his team. UVA is a pioneer and leader in the use of optical multiplexing to create scalable quantum computing platforms. In 2014, Pfister’s group succeeded in generating over 3,000 quantum modes in bulk optical systems. However, using this many quantum modes requires a large footprint to include the thousands of mirrors, lenses, and other components needed to perform algorithms and other operations.

“The future of this field is integrated quantum optics,” Pfister said. “Only by transferring quantum optics experiments from a protected optics lab to a field-compatible photonic chip. bona fide Quantum technology can see the light of day. We are very fortunate to be attracted to UVA, a global expert in quantum photonics such as Xu Yi, and are very excited about the perspective that these new results are open to us. “

Yi’s group created a quantum source in an optical microresonator, a ring-shaped millimeter-sized structure that wraps photons and produces microcombs, a device that efficiently converts photons from a single wavelength to multiple wavelengths. bottom. Light circulates around the ring and accumulates light power. This accumulation of power increases the likelihood of photon interaction and creates entanglement between the fields of light in the microcomb. Through multiplexing, Yi’s team verified that a single microcavity on the chip produces 40 kumodes, a photonic platform with integrated quantum-mode multiplexing. This is the number they can measure.

“We estimate that optimizing the system can generate thousands of qumodes from a single device,” says Yi.

Yi’s multiplexing technology paves the way for quantum computing in real-life situations where errors are unavoidable. This also applies to classic computers. However, quantum states are much more fragile than classical states.

The number of qubits needed to correct an error can exceed one million as the number of devices increases proportionally. Multiplexing reduces the number of devices required by two or three orders of magnitude.

Yi’s photonics-based system offers two additional advantages in the quest for quantum computing. Quantum computing platforms that use superconducting electronic circuits need to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Because photons have no mass, quantum computers with photonic integrated chips can run or sleep at room temperature. In addition, Lee used standard lithography techniques to manufacture microcavities on silicon chips. This is important because it means that resonators or quantum sources can be mass-produced.

“We are proud to drive the engineering frontier in quantum computing and accelerate the transition from bulk optics to integrated photonics,” said Yi. “We continue to look for ways to integrate devices and circuits into a photonics-based quantum computing platform and optimize its performance.”

Credits: August 6, 2021, “Squeezed Quantum Micro Comb On Chip” by Zijiao Yang, Mandana Jahanbozorgi, Dongin Jeong, Shuman Sun, Olivier Pfister, Hansuek Lee, XuYi Nature Communications..
DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-021-25054-z



Photonic Chip Breakthrough Opens a Path Toward Quantum Computing in Real-World Conditions Source link Photonic Chip Breakthrough Opens a Path Toward Quantum Computing in Real-World Conditions

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