Novel CRISPR imaging technology reveals genes controlling tumor immunity

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Sinai scientists have developed a new technology that allows them to link specific molecules to complex molecules in a scale and resolution that was not previously possible. The results could lead to new ways of using antiretroviral drugs.

The technology, called Perturb-map, uses a new barcode system for marking cancer Cells with different genetic markers and the expression of cancer cells, as well as non-cancer neighbors, in the tissue. Using this method, researchers were able to identify specific organic matter control of the lungs additive growth, the composition of the immune system, and even the response to immunotherapy, according to the study, published in the March of Cell.

Cancer consists of many different types of cells in addition to the cancer cells themselves, and over the past two decades, cancer treatment has undergone a series of changes that have led to the development of cancer cells in the tumor. . These include antibiotics such as Keytruda and Tecentriq, which activate antibiotics in addition it allows them to kill cancer cells, and Avastin, which alters blood flow and cancer.

Because the nature of the virus has a major impact on the result of patience, there is a need to identify the genes that cancer cells use to control their environmental conditions. This information is the key to developing new ones cancer treatment. However, because tumor tumors reveal hundreds of genes, identifying those to be targeted requires research criteria that are extremely difficult to achieve in a cancer-fighting animal, which is essential to fully represent the patient’s vascular status.

Scientists have been using CRISPR biomedical technology for many years to bring out the genes in cancer cells and study their function. The technological advances of the DNA sequence allow the use of thousands of CRISPRs simultaneously so that each cell can be studied in a single cell. However, these CRISPR genetic screens were able to identify genes and functions that function in cancer cells. This leaves many important questions unanswered by the genetic screen, such as cancer cells changing recruitment and activating the immune system in the virus, an important patient response to immunity.

Using the Perturb-map, scientists have struck out two major mechanisms that have a profound effect on the growth and proliferation of immune cells. One pathway is controlled by the cytokine interferon gamma (IFNg) and the other by the tumor neuronal progenitor factor (TGFbR). They found that when the TGFbR2 gene or the SOCS1 gene, the IFNg gene, was erased, cancer cellspneumonia became more severe and more frequent.

Although the loss of any cell type has a similar effect on cancer progression, the tumor imaging, performed by the Perturb-map platform, reveals that SOCS1 cells are highly involved in T cells. , while TGFbR cells remove T cells. Even when SOCS1 and TGFbR tumors interact directly, the former remains intact and the posterior is excluded. This is an important finding, as patients whose tumor cells are deficient in antibiotics are responding negatively to antibiotics.

“These studies show that the effects of these genes on the condition of the tumor are very localized,” said lead author Brian Brown, Ph.D., Director of Icahn Genomics and Deputy Director of the Lipschultz Precision Immunology Institute (PrIISM) at Mount Sinai. . “This is a well-known fact because we are learning that most tumors of the patient contain small amounts of different pathogens. The effect of many genes on tumor-related factors is still unknown, but the Perturb-map platform will now provide scientists with a powerful way to solve the problem. “

“Perturb-map allows us to find out specific molecules which controls the extremes in a measure that was previously impossible. This includes allowing the identification of genes responsible for recruitment or reorganization Cells which prevents the immune system from eliminating cancer cells. It’s amazing, “said Miriam Merad, MD, Ph.D., co-author of the study and Director of PrIISM. important to us. sick. ”

Secretory research of ovarian cancer

Learn more:
Maxime Dhainaut et al, Spatial CRISPR genomics identifies microbial pathogens, Cell (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.cell.2022.02.015

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