The fallopian tube is the place of fertilization, where once a month the life of a woman after puberty, before menstruation, the egg is moved from the ovary, ready for fertilization by the sperm.
A new study from Michigan Medicine researchers has created a complete “atlas” of different cell types and their functions in a unique fallopian tube, paving the way for new research on infertility and other diseases related to this part of the body, including other diseases.
Using meat samples from women who have already had four males, Saher Sue Hammoud, Ph.D., and Jun Li, Ph.D. from the Department of Anthropology led a team at UM to study nearly 60,000 cells through a single RNA sequence. They used the data to identify a wide variety of structures including the fallopian tube, including both the epithelium and the deep stromal layer, which contains the immune system, blood, muscle, and other cells.
Hammoud and Li are with Ariella Shikanov, Ph.D., of the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Erica Marsh, MD, of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and team members Nicole Ulrich, MD, Yu-chi Shen, Ph.D. ., and Qianyi Ma, Ph.D. Their work is part of the Chan-Zuckerberg Center for Disease Control and Prevention to map out all the genes in the human body.
Prior to their operation, “there were about four cell types in the fallopian tube,” Hammoud said. “We were able to explain the depth of the level of differences in these cells.”
Specifically, they identified 10 different types of epithelial cells, including four finger-like cells that are responsible for moving an egg through three parts of the fallopian before and after fertilization.
Cells in the fallopian tubes are constantly changing, regenerating over time and vary greatly depending on the age of the woman, her genetic makeup, her normal condition, and the presence of disease. By comparing cells from healthy fallopian tubes to two specimens from women with fallopian tubes known as hydrosalpinx (also known as blocked fallopian tubes), the researchers were able to show which cells had increased figure, and those who changed attitudes, as follows. as the main stage of inflammation.
“Some of the genes are the cause of the disease, others are the result; and now we know the structure of each cell type to identify the genetic causes of this knowledge,” Li said.
Antibiotics in tubes and self-assembly?
The team also found that some small cell types defined in the fallopian tube may function as follows Early cellsthose that can regenerate multiple cell types in response to normal activity, or to repair damage.
One of the most amazing results of the study, Hammoud said, is identifying genes with markers for epithelial-mesenchymal canjialso known as EMT, a system that is not connected to the fallopian tube, which the cell can, in some cases, become cancerous.
Ovarian cancer, it turns out, can be a mistake. New research adds that the source of ovarian cancer – the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women – may have originated in nearby fallopian tubes.
“The EMT system seems to be well-adjusted in a woman who is already menstruating,” she said. “A possible relationship with cancer is that if there is a mistake in this number of genes in some unsuspecting people, they can develop. ovarian cancer. With EMT cells in the fallopian tube, you have a projection there. “
More understanding comes from tube and fallopian Cells from women containing hydrosalpinx, in particular, that the disease can cause a form of scarring called fibrosis. The point is, for women who do not want their tubes removed, “you may think of treating them with antidepressants as they are used to treat lung fibrosis as a way to save their tubes. during childbirth, ”said Hammoud.
Compared to previous attempts, the study provides more detailed information on cell types and functions in the tube for researchers interested in collecting questions about the female reproductive system in general. “Obviously this is a basecamp to launch future research,” Li said, including those looking at the effects of age, menstrual status, hormone therapy, and ancestral origins on cellular diversity and disease risk.
Additional authors on the paper include Kun Yang, D. Ford Hannum, Andrea Jones, Jordan Machlin, John F. Randolph Jr., Yolanda R. Smith, Samantha B. Schon, Richard Lieberman, Stephen J. Gurczynski, and Bethany B. Moore.
Nicole D. Ulrich et al, Molecular biology of human fallopian tubes in normal and hydrosalpinx infections detected using scRNA-seq, Tantan Progress (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.devcel.2022.02.017
University of Michigan
hint: New study provides a complete fallopian tube cell (2022, March 22) retrieved 22 March 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-03-cell-atlas-fallopian-tube.html
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New study provides a detailed cell atlas of the fallopian tube Source link New study provides a detailed cell atlas of the fallopian tube