Scientists at the world’s largest atom smasher have discovered the longest-lived exotic matter particles ever observed. This is twice as attractive as what has been discovered so far.
Physicists have not yet delved into the mysterious nature of this newly discovered particle (called the Double Charm Tetraquark), but a truly bizarre mixture containing an unusual combination of two matter particles and two antimatter particles. is. And the doubly attractive particles are so strange that you don’t even know how they stick together.
Quarks, particles that combine to form tetraquarks, are some of the most basic components of matter, and there are six different types, or “flavors,” each with its own mass and charge. : Top, bottom, top, bottom, strange, and charm. Physicians have discovered many tetraquarks in recent years, but this latest addition (a mixture of two charm quarks and two anti-material quarks) is the first “double charm quark”, a charm quark for balancing. Contains two charm quarks without.
How the quarks are arranged within the new tetraquark: all particles may be evenly bonded, or the two quark and antiquark pairs may be loosely mixed to form a “molecule”. For example, it can be a strange mixture of both, Matteo Palutan, a particle physicist at the Frascati National Laboratory in Italy, and Large Hadron Collider The Cosmetology (LHCb) experiment told Live Science.
Quarks cannot exist on their own, so they merge into a “recipe” of various particles called hadrons. A mixture of three quarks is called a baryon, such as a proton or a neutron, and a quark and its mixture are called a baryon. Antimatter The opposite is called a meson.
However, there is no strict rule that quarks must only exist in pairs or triplets. Chris Parkes, a physicist at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom and a spokesperson for the LHCb experiment, said the theory has predicted the presence of hadrons containing two or more quarks since the early 1960s. It is only recently that physicists have discovered these hadrons. The combination will start to exist temporarily. The first tetraquark discovered was discovered in 2003 by the Japanese Belle experiment. Since then, physicists have discovered a series of four-quark hadrons, and in 2015, two hadrons classified as “penta-quarks,” including five.
These rare and bizarre combinations of quarks, known as exotic particles, have anomalous properties that can help physicists better understand and rewrite the rules governing matter. ..
“There are widespread predictions about what exotic conditions should be seen and what their characteristics will be,” Parks told Live Science. Standard model — A theory that describes all known elementary particles and their interactions, but omits details about exotic particles and how they adhere. “Once we discover more of these exotic hadrons, we can tune these models to test our predictions and learn more about how quarks combine to form hadrons.”
Exotic particles are attractive for research, but their very short lifespan makes them difficult to investigate. Due to the relatively “long” life of the double charm tetraquark (scientifically written as Tcc +), the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest particle accelerator, has a trillion minutes before it. Appears for a little longer than 1 second. Researchers said it would break down into lighter particles.
Nevertheless, double charm tetraquarks have a longer lifespan than most exotic particles. This long lifetime, along with the fact that small collapsing particles can be detected relatively easily, is a good candidate for physicists looking to test existing theoretical models or explore previously hidden effects.
LHC physicists have discovered a new tetraquark through “bump hunting”. This is how we unveiled 62 new hadrons since 2009, including the famous hadrons. Higgs boson Simply put, bump hunting involves combining data from tens of millions of particle interactions recorded by each LHC detector. Unexpected spikes in system readings after all background noise and signals from known interactions have been excluded can provide important clues that something more unusual has happened. Bump hunts can take two to three years, Parks said.
Tetraquark usually collapses with strong force — Four basic forces of nature — But it doesn’t have to collapse that way. Although Tcc + collapses with strong force, physicists believe it can provide a path to an undiscovered tetraquark that is forbidden to decompose in this way. Theoretically, one undiscovered cousin of Tcc + named Tbb (containing two bottom quarks instead of two charm quarks) only collapses with a weak force and is more than Tcc + or other quarks. It should give an order of magnitude longer life. , Partan told Live Science.
However, Tbb is much harder to find than any other tetraquark that has yet been discovered, so physicists will need a more powerful detector to catch it. The data used to find Tcc + is from two previous LHC stints online, and Parks could generate elusive Tbb signals from data from these runs. I think it’s low. Instead, researchers plan to use upgraded detectors to look for particles in data from new runs starting next year.
The new detector “allows us to accumulate signal events five times faster than they have been used in the last few years,” says Paulutan. “So if Tbb is there, we’re sure we can catch it. It’s a matter of patience.”
Originally published in Live Science.
New ‘doubly charming’ particle could help unlock the secrets of how matter is built Source link New ‘doubly charming’ particle could help unlock the secrets of how matter is built