The terms “AD” and “BC” have roots in Christianity. “AD” is an abbreviation for the Christian era (Latin for “year of the Lord”), specifically Jesus Christ. “BC” is an abbreviation for “before Christ.”
The system labels the year based on the traditional concept of When Jesus was born — “AD” indicates a few years after his birth, and “BC” indicates a year before his birth.
In English, “AD” usually comes before the year, so the translation of “AD2022” is read as “our Lord in 2022”. In recent years, BC / AD alternatives have been gaining attention. Many publications use “CE” or “AD” and “BCE” or “Before Christ” to make the system more comfortable for non-Christians. Before explaining how and why the system was invented, let’s take a look at some historical background.
When was AD invented?
In the early Middle Ages, one of the most important calculations, and therefore one of the main motives for European mathematical studies, was the question of when to celebrate Easter. The First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD decided that Easter would fall on the Sunday following the full moon. Spring Equinox. Computus (Latin for calculation) is the procedure for calculating this most important date, and the calculation was described in a document known as the Easter Table. At one such table, with the AD 525, a monk named Dionysius Exigus (sometimes called Dennis the Small) of Scythia Minoru introduced the AD system. Brussels, an article published in the 2002 edition of the journal Sacris Erudiri.
Dionysius never said how he set the date Birth of JesusHowever, according to the book of Alden Mochamer, Professor Emeritus of History at the University of California, San Diego, he may have estimated the date using surviving works of early Christians such as Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius of Caesarea. ..Easter calculations and the origin of the Christian era“(Oxford, 2008) Dionysius tried to set AD 1 as the year of the birth of Jesus Christ, but it deviated from his estimation a few years ago, and modern estimates indicate that the birth of Christ was around 4 BC. Live Science previously reported that there was.
From AnnoDiocletiani to AnnoDomini
Diocletian devised an alternative to the Diocletian system, named after Diocletian, who was the Roman emperor from 284 AD to 305 AD. This system used the years since Diocletian became emperor. Rome.. The first year of Diocletian’s Easter table, “Anno Domini 532,” will follow the year of “Anno Diocletiani 247.” Johns Hopkins University Project Muse..
Diocletian has made special changes to eliminate the memory of Diocletian, who severely persecuted Christians. World History Encyclopedia.. E. Glenhinson, a retired professor of church history at the Southern Baptist Theological School in Louisville, Kentucky, wrote that the Diocretians edited, killed or imprisoned many Christians, and burned down their churches and scriptures. increase.Early Christianity: The Origin of the Dawn of the Middle Ages“(Abingdon Press, 2010).
Year “before Christ”
The addition of the BC component took place two centuries after Dionysius, when Venerable Vedas of Northumbria published his “British Church History” in 731. Antonia Grandsden, a reader of the history of the University of Nottingham, wrote in her book. “Historical Writing in England: c. 500 to c. 1307” (Routledge, 1997). With this work, the AD system has attracted more people’s attention and has been extended to include pre-AD 1 years. Past years have been back-calculated to indicate the number of years the event occurred “before Christ” or “BC”.
Isn’t there a zero year?
As a number concept, Bede’s updated system did not have a “zero year” zero It did not appear in Western Europe. “For Veda, who also doesn’t know the number zero, the year before one year BC was one BC. There was no zero year. After all, there was no zero for Veda,” Charles said. Saif is his book “Zero: A Biography of Dangerous Ideas” (Penguin Books, 2000).
However, zero Did it Existence; Our modern concept of zero was first published in 628 AD by the Indian scholar Brahmagupta. This idea did not spread to medieval Christian Europe from the 11th century to the 13th century.
Spread of AD and BC
The BC / AD system became popular in the 9th century after Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne adopted a system for government dating throughout Europe.
By the 15th century, all of Western Europe had adopted the BC / AD system.System inclusion was implicitly included in the introduction of the 16th century Gregorian calendar After that, it became an international standard in 1988 announced by the International Organization for Standardization. ISO 8601, Describes an internationally recognized method of representing dates and times.
Christian era and vulgar times
The alternative forms of “Before AD” and “AD” date back to 1715 and are used interchangeably with “vulgar times” in astronomy books. At that time, vulgarity meant “ordinary” rather than “crude.” The term “vulgar era” is even older and first appeared in the 1615 book by Johannes Kepler.
There are several reasons why some individuals and organizations have changed from AD to CE. These include demonstrating susceptibility to non-Christians using this dating system. It also includes the fact that “AD” is probably inaccurate, as scholars generally believe that Christ was born a few years before the year 1 AD.
-Read more about the date and time formats used by your organization’s ISO Website..
-Mochamer’s Book Provides a detailed study of Dionysius Exigus and his method of calculation.
— —WebExhibits has online resources About the Gregorian calendar, including an easy-to-read history and answers to related questions such as “What is the origin of the name of the month?”
Veda, Farmer, DH, “British Church History”, Penguins, 2003
Introducing Declercq, G, Dionysius Exiguus and the Christian era. Sacris Erudiri, 2002 https://www.brepolsonline.net/doi/abs/10.1484/J.SE.2.300491
Grandsden, A, “Historical Writings of England: c. 500 to c. 1307”, Routledge, 1997
Hinson, G, “Early Church: Origins of the Dawn of the Middle Ages,” Abingdon Press, 2010. https://www.amazon.com/Early-Church-Origins-Dawn-Middle/dp/0687006031
Mochamer, A. “Easter Computer and the Origin of the Christian Era,” Oxford, 2008. https://www.amazon.com/Early-Church-Origins-Dawn-Middle/dp/0687006031/
Zyfe, C, “Zero: Biography of Dangerous Ideas,” Penguin Books, 2000. https://www.amazon.com/Zero-Biography-Dangerous-Charles-Seife/dp/0140296476
Keeping time: The origin of B.C. and A.D. Source link Keeping time: The origin of B.C. and A.D.