How the production of antibodies is regulated, one cell at a time

Each circle represents a different cell. Different colors are cells with different characteristics. The closeness between the circles represents the similarity between the genes used by these cells. This figure shows that the cells are divided into two large groups. The most mature group (bottom right) and the most immature group (left). Credit: Saumya Kumar (iMM)

In a study coordinated by Luís Graça, a senior researcher at Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes (iMM; Portugal) and a professor at the University of Lisbon School of Medicine (FMUL), which cells use lymph nodes, tonsils, and blood? It is formed and acts to control the production of antibodies.Results announced in Scientific immunochemistryIt reveals important aspects of the regulation of antibody production and is very important for diseases where antibody production is not regulated, such as autoimmune diseases and allergies.

In recent months, the importance of vaccine protection against infectious diseases such as COVID-19 has become apparent. However, it was very difficult to study it. Human cells Since this process takes place after vaccination, it is involved in the production of antibodies after vaccination. Lymph node It’s not blood. To study this process, new techniques had to be used for sequencing and identification. gene In individual cells. “To understand the power of this technology, we need to note that all our cells carry the same genes, but cells like lymphocytes use different gene combinations than neurons. Therefore, when lymphocytes start after vaccination, some genes are turned on and others are turned off in the process of controlling antibody production, which we do hundreds of times. I studied the cells of things at the same time, “explains Luis Grassa.

The difficulty of this process was that about 20 years ago, sequencing the human genome required large laboratories in some countries to benefit from a series of further developments over a decade or more. You can understand it if you remember that. Today, this sequenced genome is available to scientists to study the activity of hundreds of independent genes. cellWhat would not have been possible a few years ago. Saumya Kumar, the lead author of this study, said: I used it after all. “

The information thus obtained has allowed researchers to study in detail the genes and molecules involved in the regulation of antibody production. In this way, a wide range of opportunities are opened to attempt some manipulations of these molecules or to reduce antibody production in order to enhance antibody production in the vaccine. antibody Diseases caused by them (such as autoimmunity and allergies).

Luís Graça states, “Disease occurs when the biological system of our organism is not properly regulated. Knowledge of biological regulation corrects these pathological situations and of a well-regulated system. You can restore a healthy balance. “

This study also shows that science has no boundaries. The iMM group includes scientists of different nationalities and skills, from clinicians to bioinformatics.

A new type of blood cell that acts as an indicator of autoimmunity

For more information:
S. Kumar et al., “Developmental branching of human T follicular control cells” Scientific immunochemistry (2021).… 6 / sciimmunol.abd8411

Courtesy of Instituto de Medicina Molecular

Quote: How antibody production is regulated, one cell at a time (May 28, 2021) on May 28, 2021 Obtained from -antibodies-cell.html

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