Health

Asthma drug can block crucial SARS-CoV-2 protein

Targeting Nsp1 with montelukast helps prevent protein binding. Credit: Mohammad Afsar

A drug used to treat asthma and allergens can bind to block an important protein produced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and reduce duplication in human immunodeficiency virus, according to a new study by researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc). ).

Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) remedycalled montelukast, it is over 20 years old and is usually prescribed to reduce inflammation and conditions such as asthma, grass fever and hives.

In the study, published in eLifethe researchers showed that the drug binds strongly to the endpoint (C-terminal) of the SARS-CoV-2 protein called Nsp1, which is one of the first proteins released into it. human cells. This protein may include ribosomes — protein-making devices — within us antibiotics and closes the binding of essential proteins required by the body’s immune system, thus weakening it. Thus targeting Nsp1 can reduce the damage caused by the virus.

“The number of mutations in this protein, especially the C-terminal region, is very low compared to other proteins, “said Tanweer Hussain, Assistant Professor in the Department of Reproductive Biology, MRDG, IISc, and the author of the book.

Hussain and his team began using a randomized controlled trial to identify more than 1,600 drugs approved by the FDA to find those binding strongly to Nsp1. Of these, they were able to diagnose dozens of drugs including montelukast and saquinavir, antiretroviral drugs. “The strong nut comparisons provides a wide range of data, within a range of terabytes, and helps to identify the exact molecules binding to the drug. Examining these and finding out which drugs can work in the cell is a challenge, ”said Mohammad Afsar, a former molecular scientist at MRDG, who is currently working at the University of Texas at Austin, and author first of the study.

Working with the team Sandeep Eswarappa, Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Hussain’s team then practiced the human body in a laboratory that produced Nsp1 in particular, treated them with montelukast and saquinavir separately, and discovered that Only montelukast can save the block. protein called Nsp1.

“It simply came to our notice then [to consider]Afsar said, “One is related, the other is stable,” Afsar said. on the other hand, it has been found to bind strongly to Nsp1, allowing the infected cells to return to normal protein synthesis.

Lab Hussain tested the effects of the drug on living organisms, in the Bio-Safety Level 3 (BSL-3) Center for Disease Control (CIDR), IISc, in collaboration with Shashank Tripathi, Assistant Professor at CIDR. and his team. They found that the drug was able to reduce the amount of bacteria in the gut in normal.

“Doctors have tried to use the drug… and there are reports that montelukast has reduced the clinical dose in COVID-19 patients,” Hussain said, adding that the exact methods it works with still need to be understand them well. His team plans to work with chemists to see if they can change the treatment regimen to make it stronger than SARS-CoV-2. They also plan to continue hunting for such drugs with a strong immune system.


Engineering has discovered how the coronavirus steals the cell


Learn more:
Mohammad Afsar et al, Nsp1-ribosomal complex targets show anti-retroviral activity on SARS-CoV-2, eLife (2022). DOI: 10.7554 / eLife.74877

Press Release:
eLife

hintAsthma medications can block the vital protein SARS-CoV-2 (2022, April 25) recovered 25 April 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-04-asthma-drug-block-crucial-sars -cov-. html

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