Antibiotics impact gut microbiome and antimicrobial resistance

Environmental communication (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-022-29919-9 “width =” 800 “height =” 530 “/>

Resistance in rats treated with antibiotics. Multiple ARG levels were displayed for each group (n = 8 natural copies). * represents significant with an effective p-value of less than 0.05 as assessed using the Wilcoxon total test. The center line represents the average value (50 percent), while the outer line of the box represents 25 percent to 75 percent. The black line indicates 5th and 95th percentages. b Significantly the AMR variants detected were sufficient in vaccinated mice compared to any other time series, i.e., day 0, day 7, and day 21, * Adjust p -Detail Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-022-29919-9

Many antibiotics are used to treat infections and to ensure the safety of surgical procedures. However, their widespread use has led to the emergence and spread of resistant viruses, resulting in “arms race” for which additional treatments are still necessary. As immunosuppression represents a growing health challenge worldwide, researchers from the Systems Ecology research team at the Luxembourg Center for Biomedicine Systems (LCSB) and the Department of Biomedical Sciences (DLSM) and from the Association of Molecular Biology diseases in DLSM investigated the impact. of antibiotics on the microbial community living in the intestines of mice. Their results, recently published in Environmental communication, indicating that some bacteria are more likely to have immune cells than others. The researchers also described important mechanisms underlying the evolution of short-term viral resistance in the gut microbiome.

Study gut resistome in murine sample

Use vaccine both in the treatment of human diseases and in animal husbandry has led to improvements antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide. Many pathogens now develop resistance to many types of antibiotics, inhibit the overall immune system and cause rapid mortality worldwide. IN published recently in The Lancet shows that, in 2019, the global incidence of disease-related illnesses is estimated to be about 5 million deaths, of which AMR is the direct cause of almost 1.3 million deaths. “The current situation is not at the bottom, with COVID-19 exacerbating the issue of immunosuppression, leaving us on the path to 10 million deaths each year by 2050,” said Professor Paul Wilmes. , president of Systems Ecology. “This is why AMR is currently referred to as ‘unknown disease.’ However, there is much more to be learned about its evolution, time scale and transmission. “

Researchers from the University of Luxembourg have used a mouse model to better understand the mechanisms underlying the development of bacterial resistance. By controlling a group of mice with a complex virus-representative system that is used in preventive measures — and monitoring its effects on them internal microbiome Over time, they have studied how certain bacteria acquire immune cells. “We designed our research to understand at what stage genes are developed and how pathogens can emerge after a single course of antibiotics,” said Dr. Laura de Nies, a post-doctoral researcher in the Systems Ecology group. and co-author. book.

Changes that cause bacteria in the composition

The researchers noticed a significant change in the microbiome of the gut of rats treated with antibiotics. While most bacterial populations are extinct due to treatment, Akkermansia muciniphilaand members of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae families remain resistant to antibiotics.

“Interestingly, we already know that these viruses are abundant in the intestinal tract of Parkinson’s patients and are associated with other common diseases,” said Dr. Elisabeth Letellier, president of the Parkinson’s Association. “The fact that they are more resistant to antibiotics shows how effective AMR can be and how important it is to understand its mechanisms.”

Increases in antimicrobial resistance

Following changes in the composition of the gut microbiome, scientists have also noticed that rats treated with antibiotics showed higher concentrations in the immune system. In particular, they have seen an increase in genes that provide resistance to three of the four antibiotics used and research suggests that these genes may have been acquired over a long period of time rather than being synthesized with genes. DNA. “Our results suggest that administered antibiotics may lead to the occasional evolution of immune resistance in the gut microbiome,” said Dr. Susheel Bhanu Busi, a member of the Systems Ecology team and first author. of the book. “It means a single treatment may already be sufficient to cause a change in the microbiome communities and lead to the purchase of new resistant strains of other bacteria.”

Immune resistance is propagated by cell membranes

It is already known that viruses can increase the resistance of bacteria through different types of organisms, either by accidental mutations or accumulation and by the spread of immune cells by cell organisms ( MGEs). These elements are a type of molecule that can be transformed from one species to another. They promote the transfer of resistant genes between pathogens through what is known as horizontal molecular transfer.

To better understand the mechanisms underlying the proliferation of antimicrobial agents in viral cells, the researchers investigated the role of MGEs. They found that integrons, a type of cellular molecule, play an important role in regulating bacterial resistance on the cell membrane administered. “Juriya organic matter found in mice treated with antibiotics, they are usually supplied by integrons, which signify an unknown mechanism for transmitting bacterial resistance, ”said Professor Paul Wilmes . societies and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. “

As many of these integrons are related to genes from families of pathogenic strains to pathogens, such as Akkermansiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, these findings also reinforce the importance of other tax groups. “The study emphasizes the important role of specific viruses, and, considering the interaction of these viruses with other chronic diseaseswe need to continue to investigate the role that integrons play in facilitating the immunity of viruses within and after this tax, ”said Professor Wilmes.

Bacteria: Reliable antagonists and resistance to viruses

Learn more:
Laura de Nies et al, Evolution of the Murine gut resistome following a major antibiotic, Environmental communication (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-022-29919-9

hintAntibiotics affect gut microbiome and immune resistance (2022, May 9) Retrieved 9 May 2022 from

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