Ancient Rome is the center of an empire that prospered for about 600 years. Meanwhile, the empire extended from northern England to the Middle East, surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
It is a mystery when the city of Rome was founded.Ancient Romans believed that Rome was founded by brothers on April 21, 753 BC Romulus and RemusIt seems that they were raised in the wild by female wolves after their parents abandoned them.This story is considered a legend today, but it was so important to the Romans that the Romans wolf Probably cared for a brother.
In fact, archaeological excavations show that people have lived in Rome for over 3,000 years, wrote in his book Thomas Dynneson, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology and Education at the University of Texas. increase.The rise of early republican Rome: a consideration of becoming a Roman“(Peter Lang Publishing, 2018).
The Romans believed that since the days of Romulus and Remus, a series of kings ruled Rome, and the last king was witnessed in 509 BC when a republican government was established to replace the king. .. Few historical records of this era remain, and modern historians have been debating whether this line of kings existed and, if so, when it ended.
Analysis of early Roman books and archaeological sites suggests that Roman inhabitants were influenced by two Etruscans and Greeks who also had cities in Italy. “For example, as a result of the Romans’ contact with the Etruscans, they were able to develop a writing system that probably originated from the Greeks of the Aegean Sea,” Dyneson wrote.
The republic’s governing system continued until 27 BC, trying to balance the interests of the noble nobles of Roman citizenship with the often poorer of the lower classes, Plebeians. Slavery was part of Roman society, but was excluded from Roman citizenship. It is unclear whether early attempts at democracy in some ancient Greek states urged the Romans to adopt a republic.
During the republican era, Roman rule expanded to include all of Italy, the Iberian Peninsula and much of North Africa, Greece, Goal, and parts of the Middle East. “Rome had an empire long before the emperor was born,” historian Adrian Goldsworthy wrote in his book.Pax Romana: War, Peace, Conquest in the Roman World“(Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 2016).
Rome was no longer a republic in 27 BC, and its nephew Octavian Julius CaesarWas given the title of “Augustus” (translated as “worshiped”) by the Roman Senate.Octavian wins the civil war with rival Mark Antony Cleopatra VII, He died of suicide and Octavian was placed under Roman rule. After this, power began to concentrate in the hands of Augustus and his successors.
Map of ancient Rome
By the time Augustus came to power, Rome itself had grown significantly. “The dramatic growth of the pre-Augustus capital in the second century could have quintupled its population, but was achieved by poor Italian farmers and high-level enslaved rural immigrants.” And the book “Classical Antiquity at the University of Cambridge,” and Richard Salah, a classical professor at Stanford University.Roman Empire: Economy, Society, Culture“(University of California Press, 2014).
Growth was what the rest of the Roman world paid for. “Rome’s expensive grain distribution, public works programs and entertainment were covered by imperial taxes and rent from public property cut from the territory of other states,” Guernsey and Salah wrote. “Most of these incomes came from the state. Italy was exempt from direct taxes on property and people, not the state.”
One of the most important structures built to entertain the masses was the Colosseum, which hosted the gladiator battle. According to an ancient inscription in the Colosseum, it was built in the 70’s AD and was paid using money and treasures looted from Jerusalem in 70 AD.
Rome’s population estimates vary, but between the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, the city may have been inhabited by a million inhabitants. After the Roman Empire struggled, the city’s population declined.
The end of ancient Rome
Modern historians often say “Roman Empire“—After the end of the Roman Republic—Continued from 27 BC to 476 AD. During this period, the Roman Empire was under the control of one or more emperors, covering England, Wales, and parts of modern Romania. Expanded to include. It also made an unlucky attempt to conquer present-day Germany, Scotland and Iraq.
The period from 27 BC to 180 AD is sometimes referred to as “Pax Romana” (Roman Peace) because Rome was relatively stable compared to the times before and after those dates. However, there were still many assassinations and civil wars during this period.
During the period after 180 AD, political instability increased and the border of the empire became “BarbarianChristianity became popular and was officially accepted during the reign of Constantine between 326 and 336 AD. Eventually it became the official religion of the Roman Empire, replacing the various previously worshiped gods.
The empire was eventually split into two, the Western Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. The two emperors sometimes cooperated with each other and at other times were in conflict.
The fate of the two halves of the Roman Empire was quite different. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century when the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire abdicated in 476 of the Western Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire lasted for almost a thousand years.Modern historians often do this part of the empire Byzantine EmpireAlthough the ancient inhabitants continued to call themselves Romans.
Constantinople (modern Istanbul) was occupied by the Ottoman Empire in 1453, and the Roman Empire really collapsed.
Ancient Rome: From city to empire in 600 years Source link Ancient Rome: From city to empire in 600 years